Strategic Planning for Public Relations 6th Edition by Ronald D. Smith, ISBN-13: 978-0367903848


Strategic Planning for Public Relations 6th Edition by Ronald D. Smith, ISBN-13: 978-0367903848

[PDF eBook eTextbook]

  • Publisher: ‎ Routledge; 6th edition (November 12, 2020)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 0367903849
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0367903848

The sixth edition of Strategic Planning for Public Relations offers an innovative and clear approach for students wanting to learn how to develop public relations campaigns.

Ron Smith shows how to implement research-driven strategic campaigns, drawing on his experience as a professional in the industry and his teaching in the classroom. He turns complex problem-solving and decision-making processes in strategic communication and public relations into easy-to-follow steps, flexible enough to apply to various situations and organizations in the real world. This new edition includes real-world, diverse examples of cases and current events, along with classic cases that stand the test of time. It includes new research on opinions and practices, covers award-winning public relations campaigns, and significantly increases information on social media, with a reformatting of the Tactics section to highlight internet-based and social media.

As a leader in teaching public relations strategy, this text is ideal for students in upper division undergraduate and graduate courses in public relations strategy and campaigns.

Complementing the book are online resources for both students and instructors. For students: chapter overviews, useful links to professional organizations and resources, and an overview of careers in public relations. For instructors: an instructors’ manual, lecture slides, and sample course materials. Please visit

Table of Contents:

Half Title
Title Page
Copyright Page
Brief Contents
About the Author
Cases and Examples
Structure of This Book
Organizational Process
Strategic Communication
Integrated Communication
Merging Communication Functions
Controversy about Integrated Communication
Persuasion and Dialogue
Strategic Public Relations
Public Relations in the Public Interest
PESO (Paid, Earned, Shared, and Owned Media)
Paid Media
Earned Media
Shared Media
Owned Media
Blending Categories
Step-by-Step Planning
Phase One: Formative Research
Phase Two: Strategy
Phase Three: Tactics
Phase Four: Evaluative Research
Effective Creativity
Roadmap to Success
Step 1 Analyzing the Situation
Public Relations Situation
Learning from Research
Best Practice
Finding Consensus
Communicating with Clients
Issues Management
Risk Management
Crisis Management
Crisis Support
Reputation Management
Ethics in Public Relations
Ethical Shortcomings
What’s Next?
Planning Example 1: Analyzing the Situation
Checklist 1: Public Relations Situation
Consensus Check
Step 2 Analyzing the Organization
Structure of Organizations
Mission, Vision, Values
Communication Audit
Situation Analysis
Internal Environment
Public Perception
Promoting Perception
External Environment
What’s Next?
Planning Example 2: Analyzing the Organization
Checklist 2A: Internal Environment
Checklist 2B: Public Perception
Checklist 2C: External Environment
Consensus Check
Step 3 Analyzing the Publics
Public, Market, Audience, Stakeholder
Characteristics of Publics
Categories of Publics
Alternative Typologies
Intercessory Public
Opinion Leader
Vocal Activist
Research on Influencers
Key Public
Planning Example 3A: Identifying Publics
Checklist 3A: Publics
Analyzing Key Publics
Stage of Development
Characteristics of Publics
Italian American Stereotype
Asian American Stereotype
LGBTQ Stereotype
Cultural Context
Face Saving
Rethinking Your Publics
Benefit Statement
What’s Next?
Planning Example 3B: Analyzing Key Publics
Checklist 3B: Key Publics
Consensus Check
Step 4 Setting Goals and Objectives
Research for Positioning
Ethics of Positioning
Elements of Objectives
Hierarchy of Objectives
Developing Objectives
Writing Objectives
What’s Next?
Planning Example 4: Setting Goals and Objectives
Checklist 4: Goals and Objectives
Consensus Check
Step 5 Creating Action and Response Strategies
Action Strategy
Proactive Strategy 1: Action
Organizational Performance
Audience Engagement
Special Event
Alliance, Coalition, Partnership
Strategic Philanthropy
Corporate Social Responsibility
Proactive Strategy 2: Communication
Newsworthy Information
Generating News
News Peg
Transparent Communication
Transparency about Public Health
Media Theory and Public Relations
Theory and News Media
Theory for Strategic Communication
Reactive Public Relations Strategy
Reactive Strategy 1: Pre-emptive Action
Reactive Strategy 2: Offensive Response
Reactive Strategy 3: Defensive Response
Strategic Reversal
Reactive Strategy 4: Diversionary Response
Reactive Strategy 5: Vocal Commiseration
Reactive Strategy 6: Rectifying Behavior
Corrective Action
Reactive Strategy 7: Deliberate Inaction
Strategic Silence
Strategic Ambiguity
Strategic Inaction
Weighing Options
What’s Next?
Planning Example 5: Action and Response Strategies
Checklist 5: Action and Response Strategies
Consensus Check
Step 6 Developing the Message Strategy
Communication Process
Information: Flow of Communication
Persuasion: Attempt to Influence
Dialogue: Quest for Understanding
Rhetorical Tradition of Persuasive Communication
Ethos: Message Source
Credibility: Power to Inspire
Charisma: Power of Personal Charm
Control: Power of Command
Organizational Spokespeople
Celebrity Spokesperson
Company Spokesperson
Spokespeople and Ethics
Planning Example 6A: Selecting Message Source
Checklist 6A: Message Source
Logos: Appeal to Reason
Verbal Evidence
Visual Supporting Evidence
Errors of Logic
Pathos: Appeal to Sentiment
Positive Emotional Appeal
Negative Emotional Appeal
Planning Example 6B: Determining Message Appeal
Checklist 6B: Message Appeal
Verbal Communication
Message Structure
Message Content
Nonverbal Communication
Kinesics (Body Language)
Oculesics (Eye Contact)
Proxemics (Social Space)
Haptics (Touching)
Vocalics (Language Cues)
Chronemics (Timing)
Visual and Aural Communication
Physical Artifact
Planning Example 6C: Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
Checklist 6C: Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
Consensus Check
Branding the Strategic Message
Language of Branding
Lessons about Branding
What’s Next?
Phase Three TACTICS
Step 7 Selecting Communication Tactics
Conventional Communication Tactics
Strategic Communication Tactics
Interpersonal Tactics
Strategy for Interpersonal Communication
Personal Involvement
Information Exchange
Special Event
Planning Special Events
Planning Example 7A: Selecting Interpersonal Tactics
Checklist 7A: Interpersonal Tactics
Owned Media Tactics
Strategy for Owned Media
Electronic Media
Digital Media
Print or Online Publication
Direct Mail
Planning Example 7B: Selecting Owned Media Tactics
Checklist 7B: Owned Media Tactics
Shared Media Tactics
Planning Example 7C: Selecting Shared Media Tactics
Checklist 7C: Shared Media Tactics
Earned Media Tactics
Strategy for Earned Media
News Blog
Public Relations and Earned Media
Direct News Subsidy
Indirect News Subsidy
Opinion Subsidy
Interactive Media Engagement
Studio Interview
Planning Example 7D: Selecting Earned Media Tactics
Checklist 7D: Earned Media Tactics
Paid Media
Strategy for Paid Media
Print Advertising
Electronic Media Advertising
Out-of-Home Advertising
Promotional Items
What’s Next?
Planning Example 7E: Selecting Paid Media Tactics
Checklist 7E: Paid Media Tactics
Step 8 Implementing the Strategic Plan
Packaging Communication Tactics
Thinking Creatively
Putting the Program Together
Planning Example 8A: Packaging Communication Tactics
Checklist 8A: Communication Tactics
Campaign Plan Book
Campaign Schedule
Frequency of Tactics
Timeline of Tasks
Campaign Budget
Budget Items
Approaches to Budgeting
Fixed Budget
Variable Budget
Full-Cost Budgeting
Optimal Success
What’s Next?
Planning Example 8B: Implementing the Strategic Plan
Checklist 8B: Strategic Plan
Consensus Check
Step 9 Evaluating the Strategic Plan
What to Evaluate
Design Questions
Evaluation Criteria
When to Evaluate
Approaches to Research Design
Factors in Evaluation Design
How to Evaluate
Judgmental Assessment
Communication Output
Evaluating Awareness Objectives
Evaluating Acceptance Objectives
Evaluating Action Objectives
Data Analysis
Ultimate Evaluation: Value-Added Public Relations
Public Relations Metrics
Barcelona Declaration 2.0
What’s Next?
Planning Example 9: Evaluating the Strategic Plan
Checklist 9: Evaluation Plan
Appendix A Applied Research
Research Topics
Do-It-Yourself Research
Research Ethics
Ethical Treatment of People
Nonprobability Sampling
Probability Sampling
Sampling Error and Size
Secondary Research
Secondary Information Sources
Appendix B Interviewing
Interview Questions
Listening Skill
Appendix C Applied Research: Focus Group
Focus Group Process
Conducting a Focus Group
Appendix D Applied Research: Survey
Survey Administration
Response Rate
Conducting a Survey
General Tips for Questionnaire
Writing Impartially
Information Items
Opinion Items
Action Items
Demographic Items
Types of Responses
Multiple Choice
Forced Choice
Rating Scale
Appendix E Applied Research: Content Analysis
Using Content Analysis
Using with Other Methodologies
Pros and Cons of Content Analysis
Conducting a Content Analysis
Appendix F Media Engagement
Reputation and Performance
Reputation as a Strategic Tool
Reputation Management
Reputation and News Media
Reputation as a Participant Activity
Headlines and Bottom Lines
Media Relations
Media Relations … from the Media Side
Media Relations … from the Organization Side
Media Relations … from Both Sides
Reputational Bumps and Bruises
Points for Consideration
Interview Setting
If You Are Asked for an Interview
Dress for Interview Success
Interview Posture
Interview Planning
Preparing for an Interview
Be-Attitudes for Interview Success
Interview Attitude
Communicating during an Interview
Problem Interviews
After an Interview
Appendix G Crisis Communication
Types of Crises
Sudden versus Smoldering Crises
Crisis Strategy
Crisis Messaging
Preparing for Crises
Appendix H The PR 200
What Every Public Relations Practitioner Should Know
Strategic Communication
Campaign Development and Implementation
Theories and Concepts of Public Relations
Public Relations Research
Proactive Strategy for Public Relations
Reactive Strategy for Public Relations
Elements of Message Strategy
Public Relations Tactics
Public Relations Cases
Citations and Recommended Readings

Ronald D. Smith was Professor Emeritus of Public Communication and former Chair of the Communication Department at Buffalo State (SUNY). He was an accredited member of the Public Relations Society of America.

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