Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and Practice 6th Edition by Nancey G. Leigh, ISBN-13: 978-1506363998



Planning Local Economic Development: Theory and Practice 6th Edition by Nancey G. Leigh, ISBN-13: 978-1506363998

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  • Publisher: ‎ SAGE Publications, Inc; 6th edition (December 22, 2016)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 536 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 1506363997
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-1506363998

Written by authors with years of academic, regional, and city planning experience, the classic Planning Local Economic Development has laid the foundation for practitioners and academics working in planning and policy development for generations. With deeper coverage of sustainability and resiliency, the new Sixth Edition explores the theories of local economic development while addressing the issues and opportunities faced by cities, towns, and local entities in crafting their economic destinies within the global economy. Nancey Green Leigh and Edward J. Blakely provide a thoroughly up-to-date exploration of planning processes, analytical techniques and data, and locality, business, and human resource development, as well as advanced technology and sustainable economic development strategies.

Table of Contents:

1. The Enduring Argument for Local Economic Development Planning
Local Economic Development Planning in the Face of Globalization
The Influence of Outsourcing and Insourcing
The Geography of the New Economy
Economic Developments 1.1: The New Economy
People and Places Left Out of the New Economy
Growing Income and Earnings Inequality
Growing Racial Inequality
Economic Developments 1.2: What Is Happening to the Middle Class?
The Working Poor
The Decline in Good Jobs
The Rise of the Foreign-Born Population
Prison Populations
Economic Developments 1.3: Five Keys Charter School Provides Education Access to Prisoners in California
Growing Spatial Inequality
Increasing Metropolitan Inequality
Increasing Rural Inequality
Shaping Global Warming: The U.S. Economic Engine
The Future of Local Economic Development Planning
References and Suggested Readings
2. The Influence of National and State Policies on Local Economic Development
Three Approaches to National Economic Policy
Monetary and Tax Policy
Trade Policy
Welfare to Workfare Policy
Health Care Policy
Employment Policy
National Policy Targeting Local Economic Development
Economic Developments 2.1: Crisis and Response: Lasting Effects of the Great Recession
Coordination of Local and National Development Efforts
State Economic Development Approaches
Phases of Economic Development
Challenges and Opportunities Inherent in Economic Development Policy Making
Economic Developments 2.2: Natural Disasters’ Impacts on Economic Development
Appendix 2.1: Economic Development Funding by Major Federal Agencies (in millions of dollars)
References and Suggested Readings
3. Concepts and Theory of Local Economic Development
Defining Local Economic Development
Theories of Growth and Development
Neoclassical Economic Theory
Economic Base Theory
Product Cycle Theory
Location Theories
Central Place Theory
Translating Theory Into Practice
Attraction Models
New Markets Model
Theories, Models, and Fads in Local Economic Development Planning
The Continued Evolution of Economic Development Theory Into Local Practice
Business and the Economic Base
Employment Resources
Community Resources
Appendix 3.1: Summary of Economic Development Theories
References and Suggested Readings
4. The Local Economic Development Profession and Professionals
The Role of the Economic Development Practitioner
The Community
The Organization
The Task Functions
The Clients
The Professional Roles
Economic Development Careers
Summary and Conclusion
References and Suggested Readings
5. The Local Economic Development Planning Process
Preliminary Tasks of Local Economic Development Planning
Identifying the Planners
Determining Geographic Scope
The Six Phases of Planning
Managing Planning Resources in the Community
Determining the Physical Environment
Facing the Regulatory Environment as a Planning Resource
Preparing the Attitudinal Environment
Selecting a Local Economic Development Role
Entrepreneur or Developer
Typology of Planning Approaches
Recruitment Planning (Preactive)
Impact Planning (Reactive)
Contingency Planning (Interactive)
Strategic Planning (Proactive)
Features of Local Economic Development Planning
Targeting Zones of Action
Building Community-Level Institutions for Development
Expanding Local Ownership
Merging the Resources of the Social Welfare System
Linking Employment and Economic Development Policies and Programs
Building Quality Jobs
Public–Private Venturing
Putting It All Together: Creating a Local Economic Development Strategy (Part 1)
PLED Problem Solving 5.1: Case Study, Part 1
References and Suggested Readings
6. Introduction to Analytical Methods for Local Economic Development Planning
Information and Analytical Requirements for Local Economic Development Planning
Understanding an Economy’s Strengths and Weaknesses
The Economic Profile
Quality of Life
Income and Wages
Labor Force Characteristics
Business Establishments by Industry Sector and Employment Size
International Linkages
Research Base and Higher Education Resources
Transportation, Utilities, Taxes, Land/Building Availability, and Environmental Regulations
Building on Comparisons
Gathering Available Descriptive Data
Local Agencies and Individuals
Industrial Classifications
Occupational Data
Census of the Population
Employer Reports
Private Data
Examining Analytical Techniques
Economic Base Analysis as a Foundation for Economic Development Planning
Location Quotients for Base Analysis
Data Requirements for Location Quotients
The Growing Parts of a Local Economy: Understanding Where Jobs Will Be in the Future
Rationale for a Dynamic Analysis
Analysis Tool: Shift-Share Analysis
Principles of Economic Projections
How Do Changes Multiply Through the Economy?
The Concept of Cumulative Change
Analysis Tool: Input–Output Analysis
Using Input–Output Analysis in Local Economic Development
Identifying Industrial Clusters: The Most Important Parts of the Local Economy
Local Networks of Buying and Selling
Analysis Tool: Cluster Analysis
Cincinnati USA Partnership Cluster Work 8 Years Later
PLED Problem Solving 6.1: Cluster Case Study: Cincinnati, Ohio, Metropolitan Area
Using Clusters in Local Economic Analysis
Social Network Analysis
Putting It All Together: Creating a Local Economic Development Strategy (Part 2)
PLED Problem Solving 6.2: Case Study, Part 2
References and Suggested Readings
7. Local Economic Development Strategy
The Goals of Local Economic Development
Achieve Local Economic Stability
Build a Diverse Economic and Employment Base
Promote Local Sustainability
Prerequisites for Successful Strategy Formulation
Selecting Strategic Options
The Locality Development Strategy Option (the Built Environment Dimension)
The Business Development Strategy Option (the Demand Side)
The Human Resource Development Option (the Supply Side)
Economic Development Plans Within the Context of Comprehensive Plans
The Community-Based Employment Development Strategy Option (the Neighborhood Dimension)
Common Traps in Strategy Formulation
Assembling the Elements of a Strategy
Target Characteristics
Methods of Development
Forms of Local Organization
Time Frame
Projects From Strategies
Describing Project Outcomes
Specifying Strategic Resources
Plan Financing and Implementation
References and Suggested Readings
8. Locality Development
The Link Between Economic Development and Urban Design
Landbanking and Community Land Trusts
Brownfield Redevelopment: A Priority of Locality Development
Physical Infrastructure Development on Industrial and Commercial Land
Speculative Buildings
Zoning Regulations
Business Improvement Districts
Regulatory Improvement Through Simplification
Housing and Neighborhood Improvement
Household Services
Community Services
Economic Developments 8.1: University-Led Revitalization Strategies
PLED Problem Solving 8.1: Community Building Through Ownership
PLED Problem Solving 8.2: Revitalizing the Center
PLED Problem Solving 8.3: The Portside Plan
References and Suggested Readings
9. Business Development
Creating a Good Business Climate
Entrepreneur Development and Economic Gardening
Entrepreneurial Community Program: Growing an Economic Garden
One-Stop Business Assistance Centers
Start-Up and Venture Financing Companies and Development Banks
Small Business Development Centers
Women’s Enterprises
Promotion and Tourism Programs
Research and Development
Enterprise Zones
Incentivizing or Subsidizing Local Economic Development?
U.S. Versus International Perspectives
Economic Developments 9.1: #Subsidizing Twitter
Economic Developments 9.2: Roasted by Regulation: Starbucks Coffee’s Selective Tax Advantages in the Netherlands
Economic Developments 9.3: Targeting Retail Gaps in a Low- to Moderate-Income City
Economic Developments 9.4: Mobile Entrepreneurs: Portland Food Carts
Economic Developments 9.5: Small-Town Ideas Spur Big-Time Manufacturing Growth
PLED Problem Solving 9.1: Community-Based Business
PLED Problem Solving 9.2: A Small Town Determines Its Own Destiny
PLED Problem Solving 9.3: An Incubator as a Revitalization Tool
References and Suggested Readings
10. Human Resource Development
Workforce Development
Realities of an Undertrained Workforce
Public Role in Workforce Development
Goals of Human Resource Programs
Matching Human Resource Programs and Economic Development Objectives
Workforce Investment Boards
First-Source or Targeted Hiring Agreements
Employment Maintenance
Skill Banks
Training Programs
Customized Training
Competency-Based Training
Comprehensive Training to Meet Social Needs
Youth Enterprise
University–Industry Technology Transfer
Self-Employment Initiatives
Career Ladders
Disabled Persons Skills Development
Education as the Foundation of Human Resource Development
Implementation of a Human Resource Development Strategy
Economic Developments 10.1: Betting on Downtown Las Vegas
Economic Developments 10.2: A Holistic Approach to Workforce Development
Economic Developments 10.3: The Inverclyde Training Trust
Economic Developments 10.4: The Mark of the Maker Movement
PLED Problem Solving 10.1: Employment Planning as Economic Development
PLED Problem Solving 10.2: Young Need a Job—Make Your Own!
References and Suggested Readings
11. Community Economic Development
Economic Developments 11.1: Brownfield Redevelopment Principles to Prevent Neighborhood Gentrification
Community Development Corporations
Institutional Advantages of Community Development Corporations
Challenges for Community Economic Development
Community Reinvestment Programs
Community Cooperatives
Local Enterprise Agencies
Employee/Worker Ownerships
Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Worker Cooperatives
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood Development
Targeting and Marketing Neighborhood/Community Assets
Identification of the Community’s Long-Term Goals
Marketing of the Community
Incentives and Community Benefits Agreements
The Community Prospectus: A Means of Communicating the Qualities of Your Community
Local Government’s Role in Community Economic Development
Economic Developments 11.2: East Gateway District: Bridging the Gap Between Community and Economic Development
PLED Problem Solving 11.1: Workers as Owners
PLED Problem Solving 11.2: A Community Finds a Business
PLED Problem Solving 11.3: New Freedom House
References and Suggested Readings
12. Building the Implementation Plan
Public–Private Partnerships
Marketing Community
Components of Good Community Marketing Analysis and Designing a Marketing Plan
Community (City or Neighborhood) Marketing Plan
Economic Developments 12.1: Marketing Tools for Communicating a Community’s Assets to the Marketplace
Project Financing
Project Viability Assessment
Community Viability
Locational Viability
Commercial Viability
Implementation Viability
Sustainability Assessment
Detailed Feasibility Analysis
Market Analysis
Financial Analysis
Break-Even Analysis
Development of Financial Scenarios
Cash Flow Analysis
The Profit and Loss Statement
The Corporate Shift to Sustainability
Project Sustainability
Cash Flow Projections
The Projected Return on Investment Ratio
Cost–Benefit Analysis
Organizational Design
Using the Feasibility Study
Business Plan Preparation
Monitoring and Evaluation Program
Criteria to Be Used in Evaluation
Evaluation Techniques
Time Schedules for Conducting the Evaluation
Budget for Evaluation
Organization and Staff Requirements for Evaluation
References and Suggested Readings
13. Institutional Approaches to Local Economic Development
Organizational Requirements for Local Development
Public–Private Partnerships
The Economic Development Specialist
Institutional Approaches to Local Economic Development
A Typology of Development Organizations
Economic Development Agencies as Units of Local Government
Independent Private Development Agencies
Economic Development Corporations
Summary of Institutional Approaches
References and Suggested Readings
14. Local Economic Development Planning’s Response to a Global Economy and Climate-Challenged Planet
Finding Solutions Through Innovation and Technology
The Technology Development Process
Advanced Technology Regional Choice Model
Fostering the Advanced Technology Community
Human Resources
Education and Research Facilities
Environmental Quality and Community Amenities
Business and Support Institutions
Enterprise or Incubator Facilities
Advanced Manufacturing and Clean Technology
Resiliency in Local Economic Development
Local Economic Development Planning for Resiliency
Economic Developments 14.1: A Path Toward More Resilient Cities
PLED Problem Solving 14.1: Community Resilience: The Next Stage in Business Community Thinking?
Conclusion: The Future of Local Economic Development Planning
Four Strategies to Foster Structural Change in Local Economic Development Planning and Practice
The Way Forward
References and Suggested Readings
About the Authors

Nancey Green Leigh is a Professor and PhD Program Director in the School of City and Regional Planning Program at the Georgia Institute of Technology. She is a Fellow of the American lnstitute of Certified Planners and Co-Editor of the Journal of Planning Education and Research. Leigh teaches, conducts research, and publishes in the areas of local economic development planning, urban and regional development, brownfield redevelopment, and sustainable urban industrial systems.She is the author of Stemming Middle Class Decline: The Challenge to Economic Development Planning, and coauthor (with Joan Fitzgerald) of Economic Revitalization: Cases and Strategies for City and Suburb. Some of the journals she has published in are Economic Development Quarterly, Journal of Planning Education and Research, Journal of the American Planning Association, Journal of Industrial Ecology, International Regional Science Review, Journal of Resource Conservation and Recycling, Growth and Change, Journal of Urban Technology, IEDC Economic Development Journal, and the Journal of Planning Literature. She obtained her B.A. in urban studies and a master′s in regional planning from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and a master′s in economics and a Ph.D. in city and regional planning from the University of California at Berkeley. She is a former Woodrow Wilson Fellow and Regents Fellow of the University of California at Berkeley and past Vice President of the Association of The Collegiate Schools of Planning.

Dr. Edward J. Blakely is Professor of Urban Policy in the United States Study Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia. He has held academic positions in teaching, research, academic administration, and economic development policy for more than 30 years, including Dean of the Robert J. Milano Graduate School of Management and Urban Policy and Dean of the University of Southern California School of Policy, Planning, and Development. He is a leading scholar and practitioner in the fields of planning and local economic development. Dr. Blakely served as a policy adviser to the mayor of Oakland and adviser to the Los Angeles Public School District. He was appointed by President Clinton as Vice Chair of the Presidio Trust, where he played a key role in the development of the former army base into a profitable civic facility. He has served on the Board of Directors of the American Planning Association, the Nature Conservancy, and Fulbright Association. In January 2007, Dr. Blakely was appointed by the Mayor of New Orleans to head the recovery effort following the devastation of Hurricane Katrina.

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