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Water Encyclopedia, Domestic, Municipal, and Industrial Water Supply and Waste Disposal, ISBN-13: 978-0471736875

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Water Encyclopedia, Domestic, Municipal, and Industrial Water Supply and Waste Disposal, ISBN-13: 978-0471736875

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  • Publisher: ‎ Wiley-Interscience; Volume 1 edition (June 1, 2005)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 968 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 9780471736875
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0471736875

Leading experts in water-related fields have come together to make Water Encyclopedia a one-stop, comprehensive reference about the world s most important natural resource. It covers designated topics in a clear concise and authoritative manner. The treatment is practical in orientation, keeping in mind the needs of the users. Theory is included only where required for an understanding of the topic.

Table of Contents:

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Contributors xiii

Domestic Water Supply

The Arsenic Drinking Water Crisis in Bangladesh 1

Bottled Water 3

Corrosion Control in Drinking Water Systems 5

Economics of Residential Water Demands 12

Gray Water Reuse in Households 16

Water and Human Health 19

Nitrate Health Effects 30

Domestic Water Supply—Public–Private Partnership 42

Methods of Reducing Radon in Drinking Water 51

Water Reuse 53

Roof Drainage Hydraulics 54

Septic Tank Systems 61

Domestic Solar Water Heaters 63

Household Drinking Water Treatment and Safe Storage 67

Virus Transport in the Subsurface 70

Windmills 73

Municipal Water Supply

Mixing and Agitation in Water Treatment Systems 76

Arsenic in Natural Waters 81

Evaluation of Microbial Components of Biofouling 83

Threat Agents and Water Biosecurity 87

Granular Activated Carbon 92

Competitive Adsorption of Several Organics and Heavy Metals on Activated Carbon in Water 107

A Real-Time Hydrological Information System for Cities 121

Chlorine and Chlorine Residuals 127

Modeling Chlorine Residuals in Urban Water Distribution Systems 131

Particulate Matter Removal by Coagulation 137

Selective Coagulant Recovery from Water Treatment Plant Residuals Using the Domain Membrane Process 139

Physical Water Conditioning 141

Consumer Confidence Reports 145

Water Conservation Measures 146

Preventing Well Contamination 149

Corrosion Control 152

Cross Connection and Backflow Prevention 155

Molecular-Based Detection of Cryptosporidium Parvum in Water 158

Cryptosporidium 162

Measuring Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocyst Inactivation Following Disinfection With Ultraviolet Light 165

Dechlorination 169

Desalination 170

Diatomaceous Earth Filtration for Drinking Water 174

Emerging Waterborne Infectious Diseases 177

Improving Waterborne Disease Surveillance 183

Disinfectants 192

Disinfection 196

Water Distribution System Operation 200

Water Quality in Distribution Systems 204

Design of Water Distribution Systems 207

What is in Our Drinking Water? 213

The Economics of Water Resources Allocation 215

Answering the Challenge 218

Key Causes of Drinking Water Quality Failure in a Rural Small Water Supply of South Africa 221

Filtration 227

Water Filtration 230

Filtration With Granular Media 233

Slow Sand Filtration and the Impact of Schmutzdecke 235

Multistage Drinking Water Filtration 237

Multistage Filtration: An Innovative Water Treatment Technology 238

Particulate Matter Removal by Filtration and Sedimentation 243

Filtration Water Treatment 245

Synthetic and Natural Organic Removal by Biological Filtration 248

Granular Bed and Precoat Filtration 249

Flocculation 252

Fluoridation 254

Giardiasis 257

Gravity Separation/Sedimentation 259

Water Hammer 261

Health Effects of Commonly Occurring Disinfection Byproducts in Municipal Water Supplies 264

Health Effects of Microbial Contaminants and Biotoxins in Drinking Water 277

Drinking Water and Public Health Protection 281

1962 U.S. Public Health Service Standards 292

Ion Exchange and Demineralization 297

The State of the Water Industry—2004 301

Iron and Manganese Removal 312

Extraterritorial Land Use Control to Protect Water Supplies 315

Leak Detection and Water Loss Control 317

Lime–Soda Ash Processes 320

Lime Softening 322

Ion Exchange—Use of Magnetic Ion Exchange Resin For DOC Removal 325

Membrane Filtration 331

Water Meters 337

Microbiological Concerns of Drinking Water Distribution Systems 341

Nitrification of Potable Water Using Trickling Filters 346

Organic Removal 350

Ozone 354

Ozone With Activated Carbon for Drinking Water Treatment 357

Ozone–Bromide Interactions 357

Municipal Water Supply: Ozonation 362

Review of Parasite Fate and Transport in Karstic Aquifers 365

Particulate Removal 370

Pharmaceuticals in Water Systems 372

Point-of-Use/Point-of-Entry Systems (POU/POE) 378

Assessing the Bactericidal Efficiency of Polydex for the Disinfection of Drinking Water in Rural Areas of South Africa 382

Private Sector Participation, Marketing and Corporate Strategies in Municipal Water Supply and Sewerage 387

Pumps 391

Radionuclides 395

Use of Redox Potentials in Wastewater Treatment 399

Repairing Distribution Line Breaks 400

Role of Small Water Reservoirs in Environment 403

Reservoirs, Towers, and Tanks Drinking Water Storage Facilities 408

Water Treatment Plant Residuals Management 411

Reverse Osmosis, Process Chemistry 414

Reverse Osmosis, Membrane Foulants 416

Reverse Osmosis, Membrane Cleaning 419

Application of Risk Assessments in Crafting Drinking Water Regulations 422

Potential Risks of Waterborne Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 429

Slow Sand Filtration 431

Approaches for Securing a Water Distribution System 434

Water Security: An Emerging Issue 437

Guide to Selection of Water Treatment Processes 439

Source Water Assessment 444

Hydraulic Design of Water Distribution Storage Tanks 448

System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) 449

Settling Tanks 452

Treatment for Technologies for Small Drinking Water Systems 457

Ultraviolet Disinfection 466

Ultraviolet Irradiation 469

Water Disinfection Using UV Radiation—A Sri Lankan Experience 471

Drinking Water Quality Standards (DWQS)-United States 476

Valves 482

Removal of Pathogenic Bacteria, Viruses, and Protozoa 485

Water Meter 489

Municipal Watersheds 495

Public Water Supply World 500

Ten Key Trends That Will Shape the Future of the World Water Industry 508

Zebra Mussel Control Without Chemicals 510

Package Plants 514

Anaerobic Sewage Treatment 517

Persistence of Pathogens in Water 521

Well Head Protection 524

Chemical Drinking Water Standards, Past, Present, and Future 529

Industrial Water

Magnetic Water Conditioning 534

Water Impacts from Construction Sites 537

Industrial Cooling Water—Biofouling 538

Industrial Cooling Water—Corrosion 542

Industrial Cooling Water—Scale Formation 545

Economics of Industrial Water Demands 549

Electric Generating Plants—Effects of Contaminants 553

Energy Dissipation 558

Water Use in Energy Production 560

Evaluation of Toxic Properties of Industrial Effluents by on-Line Respirometry 565

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 571

Hydrocarbon Treatment Techniques 575

Use of Anaerobic-Aerobic Treatment Systems for Maize Processing Plants 581

Bonding of Toxic Metal Ions 586

Application of Microfiltration to Industrial Wastewaters 591

Water Treatment in Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage 595

Industrial Mine Use: Mine Waste 609

Sugarcane Industry Wastewaters Treatment 614

Estimated Use of Water in The United States in 1990 Industrial Water Use 620

Waste Water Treatment

Aeration 623

Fine Bubble Diffused Air Aeration Systems 626

Air Stripping 631

Land Applications of Wastewater in Arid Lands: Theory and Case Studies 632

Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Contaminated Water Sources 636

Biochemical Oxygen Demand 639

Molecular Biology Tools for Monitoring Biodiversity in Wastewater Treatment Plants 642

Biosolids 646

Integrated Capacity Building Needs for Water Supply and Wastewater Sanitation 651

Wastewater Characterization 656

Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment of Wastewater 659

Getting Our Clean Water Act Together 660

Inadequate Treatment of Wastewater: A Source of Coliform Bacteria in Receiving Surface Water Bodies in Developing Countries—Case Study: Eastern Cape Province of South Africa 661

Denitrification in The Activated Sludge Process 667

Detergents 669

Ecological Wastewater Management 675

Waste Treatment in Fish Farms 681

Flotation as A Separation Process 684

Degradation of Chloro-Organics and Hydrocarbons 688

Landfill 695

Landfill Leachates, Part I: Origin and Characterization 699

Landfill Leachates: Part 2: Treatment 702

Macrophytes as Biomonitors of Polychlorinated Biphenyls 714

Wastewater Management for Developing Countries 718

Mercury Removal From Complex Waste Waters 722

Metal Speciation and Mobility as Influenced by Landfill Disposal Practices 723

Microbial Foaming in the Activated Sludge Process 728

Introduction to Wastewater Modeling and Treatment Plant Design 730

Practical Applications of Wastewater Modeling and Treatment Plant Design 738

New York City Harbor Survey 745

Nitrification in the Activated Sludge Process 751

Effluent Limitations and the NPDES Permit 755

Odor Abatement in Wastewater Treatment Plants 760

Aqueous Reactions of Specific Organic Compounds with Ozone 765

The Fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in The Wastewater Treatment Process 766

The Role of Organoclay in Water Cleanup 771

Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment 782

Biological Phosphorus Removal in the Activated Sludge Process 788

Photocatalytic Membrane Reactors in Water Purification 791

EPA’s National Pretreatment Program, 1973–2003: Thirty Years of Protecting The Environment 798

Problems Encountered During Pipe Repair and Renewal 801

Radioactive Waste 802

Reclaimed Water 805

Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Technologies 808

Wastewater Treatment Processes and Water Reuse 814

Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Research 819

Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse 825

Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Treatment Technology 826

Sewage 828

Domestic Sewage 830

Solidification/Stabilization of Hazardous Solid Wastes 835

Wastewater Treatment—Small Scale 840

Microbial Foaming and Bulking in Activated Sludge Plants 844

Aqueous Behavior of Elements in a Flue Gas Desulfurization Sludge Disposal Site 848

Sludge Treatment and Disposal 853

Wastewater Sludge 861

Processing of Sludge 864

Municipal Storm Water Management 866

What Wastewater Utilities Can Do Now to Guard Against Terrorist and Security Threats 870

Wastewater Treatment Techniques—Advanced 871

Trenchless Repair and Rehabilitation Techniques 876

Basics of Underground Water and Sewer Pipeline Assessment, Repair, and Rehabilitation 883

Water Hammer: Quantitative Causes and Effects 891

Constructed Wetlands 892

Using Ecosystem Processes in a Constructed Wetland to Treat Mine Wastewater in Ireland 897

Water and Wastewater Properties and Characteristics 900

Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment 904

Sewerage Odors—How to Control 910

Ultrafiltration—Complexation in Wastewater Treatment 916

Index 923

Jay Lehr, Ph.D. is senior fellow and science director of The Heartland Institute, an independent nonprofit organization based in Chicago. In 2008 he was named chief hydro-geologist for Earth Water Global (EWG) corporation, one of the world’s largest providers of water supply projects. He is an internationally renowned speaker, scientist, and author who has testified before Congress on more than three dozen occasions on environmental issues, and consulted with nearly every agency of the federal government and with many foreign countries.

Dr. Lehr is a leading authority on groundwater hydrology. After graduating from Princeton University at the age of 20 with a degree in Geological Engineering, he went on to receive the nation’s first Ph.D. in Groundwater Hydrology from the University of Arizona. He later became executive director of the National Association of Groundwater Scientists and Engineers.

Dr. Lehr is the author of more than 1,000 magazine and journal articles, and he has authored or coauthored more than 30 books. He is editor of Rational Readings on Environmental Concerns, McGraw-Hill’s Handbook on Environmental Science, Health and Technology (2000), Wiley’s Remediation Technologies Handbook (2004), Environmental Instrumentation and Analysis Handbook (2005), and the six-volume Water Encyclopedia (Wiley Interscience, 2005).

Dr. Lehr has spoken before more than 1,000 audience on topics ranging from global warming and biotechnology to business management and health and physical fitness. He invariably receives the highest scores for entertaining and energizing even the largest audiences.

He was featured in Parachute Magazine in March 2010 for setting a new world record for having jumped from an airplane each and every month for 32 years.

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