The Cambridge Grammar of Medieval and Early Modern Greek 4 Volume Set, ISBN-13: 978-0521195294


The Cambridge Grammar of Medieval and Early Modern Greek 4 Volume Set, ISBN-13: 978-0521195294

[PDF eBook eTextbook]

  • Publisher: ‎ Cambridge University Press; Bilingual edition (June 6, 2019)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 2313 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 0521195292
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0521195294

The first systematic, comprehensive description of the evolution of Greek at the crucial transitional stage from medieval to modern.

The Greek language has a written history of more than 3,000 years. While the classical, Hellenistic and modern periods of the language are well researched, the intermediate stages are much less well known, but of great interest to those curious to know how a language changes over time. The geographical area where Greek has been spoken stretches from the Aegean Islands to the Black Sea and from Southern Italy and Sicily to the Middle East, largely corresponding to former territories of the Byzantine Empire and its successor states. This Grammar draws on a comprehensive corpus of literary and non-literary texts written in various forms of the vernacular to document the processes of change between the eleventh and eighteenth centuries, processes which can be seen as broadly comparable to the emergence of the Romance languages from Medieval Latin. Regional and dialectal variation in phonology and morphology are treated in detail.

Table of Contents:

General Introduction
1 Background, Aims and Scope
2 The Sources
3 Methodology
4 Presentation
1. Literary Works
2. Non-literary Texts
3. Secondary Works
Correspondence Table of Graphemes and Phonemes
Part I – Phonology
1 – Introduction
1.1 Theoretical preliminaries
1.2 Presentation
2 – Vowels
2.1 Overall Description of the Vowel System
2.1.1 Simple Vowels
2.1.2 Diphthongs
2.2 Allophonic and Regional Variation
2.3 Quality of the Vowels
2.4 Phoneme Inventory
2.4.1 /a/
2.4.2 /e/
2.4.3 /o/
2.4.4 /u/
2.4.5 /i/
2.4.6 /y/ Merger of /y/ and /i/ Regression of /y/ to /u/
2.4.7 /j/ Phonemic Status Realization and Attestations Post-consonantal /j/ Deletion Deletion of /j/ after /r/
2.4.8 Diphthongs Historical Overview Phonetic Description and Graphematic Realization Phenomena Affecting Diphthongs
2.5 Dialectal Differentiation in Vowels
2.5.1 Retention of “Doric” /a/
2.5.2 Retention of “Ionic” /e/
2.5.3 Pontic Half-Central Vowels /æ/ and /oe/
2.5.4 “Raising Vocalism” Definition Dating and Literature Overview The Data
2.6 Vowel Addition
2.6.1 Prothesis Non-lexicalized Phonetic Prothesis Lexicalized Phonetic Prothesis Non-phonetic Prothesis
2.6.2 Anaptyxis
2.6.3 Addition of Word-final Vowel Nouns and Adjectives Pronouns Verbs Uninflected Words
2.7 Vowel Deletion
2.7.1 Aphaeresis
2.7.2 Syncope
2.7.3 Deletion of Final Vowel (Apocope)
2.8 Vowel Changes
2.8.1 Change to /e/ in the Adjacency of Liquids and Nasals
2.8.2 Labialization
2.8.3 Raising of /o/ to /u/
2.8.4 Backing of /i/ > /u/
2.8.5 Assimilation and Dissimilation
2.9 Vowels in Contact
2.9.1 Introduction: Types of Hiatus and Hiatus Resolution
2.9.2 Vowel Deletion: The Vowel Hierarchy Lexical Vowel Deletion Post-lexical Hiatus
2.9.3 Vowel Change at Word Boundaries
2.9.4 Synizesis Introduction and Definition Historical Overview: Evidence Alternative Evolutions
2.9.5 Crasis
3 – Consonants
3.1 Description of the Consonant System
3.2 Phoneme Inventory
3.2.1 Stops Voiceless Stops Voiced Stops
3.2.2 Fricatives Voiceless Fricatives Voiced Fricatives
3.2.3 Nasals
3.2.4 Liquids
3.2.5 Sibilants
3.2.6 Affricates Status and History Phenomena Affecting Affricates
3.3 Phonotactics
3.3.1 Position of Consonants Within the Word
3.3.2 Permissible Consonant Clusters Biconsonantal Clusters Triconsonantal Clusters Groups of More Than Three Consonants
3.4 Geminate Consonants
3.4.1 Definition
3.4.2 Origin of Geminates Introduction Original/Etymological AG Geminates Borrowing Assimilation “Spontaneous Gemination”
3.4.3 Consonants Affected
3.5 Consonant Addition
3.5.1 Prothesis and Aphaeresis
3.5.2 Anaptyxis Anaptyxis of /ɣ/ Between Vowels Anaptyxis of /ɣ/ in the Verbal Suffix -εύω Anaptyxis of /ɣ/ before /n/ Anaptyxis of Nasals Anaptyxis of /r/
3.6 Consonant Deletion
3.6.1 Fricative Deletion Intervocalic Deletion Deletion Before Synizesis Deletion Before Nasals
3.6.2 Deletion of Nasals Deletion Before Stops Deletion Before Fricatives
3.7 Final Consonants
3.7.1 Final /s/ Deletion of Final /s/ Addition of Final /s/
3.7.2 Final /n/ Addition of Final /n/ Historical Overview Morphological Addition Phonetic Addition Deletion of Final /n/ Morphological Distribution Geographical Distribution
3.8 Consonant Changes
3.8.1 Manner Dissimilation Definition Historical Overview Detailed Description of the Phenomenon Hypercorrection of Manner Dissimilation Morphophonological Manner Dissimilation
3.8.2 Palatalization Velar Palatalization Strong Velar Palatalization Dental Palatalization [n] > [ɲ] and [l] > [ʎ] before /j, i/ /s/ > /ʃ/ before /j/
3.8.3 Voicing and Devoicing Definition and Historical Overview Post-nasal Voicing Intervocalic Voicing Devoicing
3.8.4 Fricativization and Occlusion Sporadic Fricativization Fricativization due to Palatalization Fricativization due to Language Contact Fricativization due to Voicing Assimilation Orthographic Fricativization after Rough Breathing Occlusion Change to Nasals
3.8.5 Fricative Interchange Voiceless Fricative Interchange Voiced Fricative Interchange
3.8.6 Liquid Interchange Introduction and Historical Overview Delateralization Liquid Dissimilation
3.9 Word-level Phenomena
3.9.1 Metathesis
3.9.2 Assimilation
3.9.3 Dissimilation Consonant Dissimilation Dissimilatory Consonant Deletion Dissimilatory Syllable Deletion
4 – Stress
4.1 Definition and Historical Overview
4.2 Properties of the MedG and EMG Stress Accent
4.2.1 Overview
4.2.2 Proclisis and Enclisis
4.2.3 Exceptions to the Law of Limitation
4.2.4 Stress Shift and Variation: Morphological Functions Stress in Nominal Morphology Stress in Verbal Morphology Stress in Derivation and Composition
Part II – Nominal Morphology
1 – Introduction
1.1 Overview of Developments in the Nominal System
1.2 Cypriot Genitive Plural of Masculine Nouns
1.3 Accusative Plural of Masculine Nouns in Cycladic Texts
1.4 Pontic Nominative Singular of Masculine Nouns
1.5 Synizesis, Stress Shift and Accent Notation
2 – Nouns
A – Masculine and Feminine
2.1 Masculine and Feminine Nouns in /os/
2.1.1 Oxytone Nouns
2.1.2 Paroxytone Nouns
2.1.3 Proparoxytone Nouns
2.1.4 Transfers to Other Paradigms
B – Masculine
2.2 Masculine Nouns in /as/
2.2.1 Oxytone and Paroxytone Nouns with Imparisyllabic Plural
2.2.2 Paroxytone Nouns with Parisyllabic Plural
2.2.3 Paroxytone Disyllabic Nouns with Imparisyllabic Plural
2.2.4 Paroxytone Nouns with Parisyllabic Plural
2.2.5 Proparoxytone Nouns with Parisyllabic Plural
2.2.6 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.3 Masculine Nouns in /is/
2.3.1 Oxytone and Paroxytone Nouns with an Alternative Plural in -άδες
2.3.2 Paroxytone Nouns with Parisyllabic Plural
2.3.3 Oxytone Nouns with Imparisyllabic Plural in -ῆδες
2.3.4 Paroxytone and Proparoxytone Nouns with Imparisyllabic Plural in -ηδες
2.3.5 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.4 Masculine Nouns in -εύς, -έας, -ιάς
2.4.1 The Paradigm
2.4.2 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.5 Masculine Nouns in /us/
2.6 Masculine Nouns in /es/
2.6.1 Oxytone Nouns
2.6.2 Paroxytone and Proparoxytone Nouns
2.6.3 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.7 Masculine Nouns in -ιος
2.7.1 The Paradigm
2.7.2 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.8 Masculine Nouns in -ιός
2.9 Irregular and Indeclinable Masculine Nouns
2.9.1 Irregular Nouns δρῦς ἰχθύς πῆχυς
2.9.2 Indeclinable Nouns ἀγαπῶ λάς
2.10 Alternative Plural Formations of Masculine Nouns
2.10.1 -αῖοι
2.10.2 -άδες
2.10.3 -ηδες
2.10.4 -άντοι
2.10.5 -οῦδες
2.10.6 -άτοι
2.10.7 -οι
C – Feminine
2.11 Feminine Nouns in /a/
2.11.1 Oxytone Nouns Nouns with a Parisyllabic Plural Nouns with an Imparisyllabic Plural
2.11.2 Paroxytone Nouns Nouns with a Shift of Stress to the Ultimate in the Genitive Plural Nouns without a Shift of Stress in the Genitive Plural
2.11.3 Proparoxytone Nouns Nouns with a Shift of Stress to the Ultimate in the Genitive Plural Nouns with a Shift of Stress to the Penultimate in the Genitive Plural
2.11.4 Paroxytone Nouns in /ea/
2.11.5 Paroxytone/Oxytone Nouns in /ia/
2.11.6 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.12 Feminine Nouns in /i/
2.12.1 Oxytone Nouns in -ή
2.12.2 Paroxytone Nouns in -η
2.12.3 Paroxytone Nouns in -ις/-η
2.12.4 Proparoxytone Nouns in -ις/-η
2.12.5 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.13 Feminine Nouns in /u/
2.13.1 The Paradigm
2.13.2 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.14 Feminine Nouns in /o/
2.14.1 The Paradigm
2.14.2 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.15 Feminine Nouns in -ιό(ν)
2.15.1 The Paradigm
2.15.2 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.16 Feminine Nouns in /e/
2.16.1 Oxytone Nouns in -έ
2.16.2 Paroxytone Nouns in -ε
2.16.3 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.17 Irregular and Indeclinable Feminine Nouns
2.17.1 Irregular Nouns δρῦς ἰσχύς
2.17.2 Indeclinable Nouns ἀγαπῶ γῆς
2.18 Invariable Masculine and Feminine Proclitic Forms
D – Neuter
2.19 Neuter Nouns in /o(n)/
2.19.1 Oxytone Nouns
2.19.2 Paroxytone and Proparoxytone Nouns
2.19.3 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.20 Neuter Nouns in /io(n)/ and /i(n)/
2.20.1 Paroxytone Nouns in /ˈio(n)/ Paroxytone/Oxytone Nouns in -ίο(ν)/-εῖο(ν) > -(ε)ιό(ν) Paroxytone/Oxytone Nouns in -ίο(ν) > -ί(ν)
2.20.2 Proparoxytone Nouns in /io(n)/ Proparoxytone Nouns in -(ε)ιο(ν) Proparoxytone/Paroxytone Nouns in -ιο(ν)/-ι(ν)
2.20.3 Proparoxytone Nouns in -ι(ν)
2.20.4 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.21 Neuter Nouns in -μα(ν)
2.21.1 Paroxytone and Proparoxytone Neuter Nouns in -μα(ν)
2.21.2 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.22 Neuter Nouns in -ιμο(ν)
2.23 Neuter Nouns in -ος
2.23.1 Paroxytone Nouns
2.23.2 Proparoxytone Nouns
2.23.3 Transfers to Other Paradigms
2.24 Irregular and Indeclinable Neuter Nouns
2.24.1 Nouns with Dental Stem ἅλας, κέρας, πέρας and τέρας γάλα γῆρας γόνυ κρέας μέλι φάβα φῶς
2.24.2 The Invariable Noun σέβας
2.24.3 Indeclinable Nouns
2.24.4 Substantivized Verbal Forms
3 – Adjectives
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Adjectives in -ος
3.2.1 Adjectives in -ος with Feminine -η
3.2.2 Adjectives in -ος with Feminine -α
3.2.3 Adjectives in -ος with Feminine -α or -η Nominative in -η Nominative in -α Genitive in -ης Genitive in -ας Accusative in -η(ν) Accusative in -α(ν) Vocative
3.2.4 Two-Termination Adjectives in -ος, -ο(ν)
3.2.5 Contracted Adjectives in -οῦς with Alternative -ός
3.2.6 Adjectives in -άριος/-άρης
3.2.7 Adjectives in -ένιος
3.3 Adjectives with Originally 3rd-Declension Endings
3.3.1 Oxytone Adjectives in -ύς
3.3.2 The Irregular Adjectives ἥμισυς and θῆλυς ἥμισυς θῆλυς
3.3.3 Adjectives in -ης (Oxytone or Paroxytone)
3.3.4 Adjectives in -ων, -ων, -ον
3.4 New Adjectives in /is/
3.4.1 New Paroxytone Adjectives in -ης (Feminine -α/-ισσα)
3.4.2 Diminutives in -ούλης
3.4.3 New Oxytone Adjectives in -ής
3.5 Adjectives Borrowed from Romance Languages
3.5.1 Adjectives Partly Assimilated to Greek Morphology
3.5.2 Unassimilated Adjectives
3.6 Irregular Adjectives
3.6.1 μέγας
3.6.2 πολύς
3.6.3 Diminutive Adjectives in -άκι(ν)
3.7 Participles in Restricted Use
3.7.1 Participles that Conform to AG Morphology
3.7.2 Innovations in the Morphology of Participles
3.7.3 Participles with Irregular Morphology
3.7.4 Indeclinable Forms
3.7.5 New Adjectives Formed from Participles
3.8 Comparative Forms
3.8.1 Historical Overview
3.8.2 General Observations
3.8.3 Synthetic Comparative and Superlative
3.8.4 Analytic Comparative and Superlative
3.8.5 Double Forms
3.8.6 Irregular Formations πλείων etc καλλίων, καλλιώτερος etc. Other Irregular Forms
3.8.7 Absolute Superlative Regular Forms Irregular Forms from Comparatives in -ων Other Irregular Forms
4 – Adverbs
4.1 Historical Overview
4.2 Endings
4.2.1 Adverbs in -ως
4.2.2 Adverbs in -α
4.2.3 Addition of Final Consonant (/n/ or /s/)
4.2.4 Neuter Singular Forms Degree or Quantity Ordinal Numerals Expressions of Time and Speed Other Neuter Singular Forms
4.2.5 Adverbs in -ι(ς), -ί(ς)
4.2.6 Adverbs in -ου
4.3 Comparative Forms
4.3.1 Synthetic Comparative and Superlative
4.3.2 Analytic Comparative and Superlative
4.3.3 Double Forms
4.3.4 Absolute Superlative
5 – Articles, Pronouns and Determiners
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Articles
5.2.1 The Definite Article
5.2.2 The Indefinite Article
5.3 Personal Pronouns
5.3.1 Strong Forms 1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 1st Person Plural 2nd Person Plural 3rd Person
5.3.2 Weak Forms 1st Person Singular 2nd Person Singular 3rd Person Singular Invariable /tis/ Masculine Feminine Neuter 1st Person Plural 2nd Person Plural 3rd Person Plural Genitive Plural (All Genders) Masculine Accusative Plural Feminine Accusative Plural Neuter Accusative Plural
5.3.3 The Periphrastic Personal Pronoun (τοῦ) λόγου μου
5.3.4 The Periphrastic Personal Pronoun αὐτόν μου etc.
5.4 Possessive Pronouns and Determiners
5.4.1 Weak (Clitic) Forms 1st and 2nd Persons Singular 3rd Person Singular 1st and 2nd Persons Plural 3rd Person Plural
5.4.2 Emphatic Forms
5.4.3 Residual Forms
5.5 Demonstrative Pronouns and Determiners
5.5.1 Spatio-temporal Demonstratives Introduction and Historical Overview αὐτός ἀτός αὖτος ἐδαῦτος/δαῦτος αὐτεῖνος/αὐτοῦνος/αὐτόνος εὐτός/εὐτοῦνος/εὐτεῖνος/εὐτόνος ἐκεῖνος ἐκειός ἐδεκεῖνος οὗτος/τοῦτος
5.5.2 Qualitative Demonstratives Introduction and Historical Overview τοιοῦτος τίτοιος/τέτοιος/ἐτέτοιος/ἔτοιος τοιόσδε
5.5.3 Quantitative Demonstratives Introduction and Historical Overview τόσος τοσοῦτος τηλικοῦτος
5.6 Intensive Pronouns
5.6.1 ἀτός μου
5.6.2 ἀπατός μου
5.6.3 ὁ ἴδιος
5.6.4 μόνος μου and μοναχός μου
5.7 Interrogative Pronouns
5.7.1 Simple Interrogatives ποῖος/ποιός ὁποῖος τίς, τί τίντα/ἴντα
5.7.2 Quantitative/qualitative Interrogatives πόσος ποταπός ποταποῖος
5.8 Indefinite Pronouns
5.8.1 τις
5.8.2 τίποτε
5.8.3 οὐδετινάς
5.8.4 οὐδετίποτε
5.8.5 εἷς
5.8.6 οὐδείς
5.8.7 μηδείς
5.8.8 μηδετίποτε
5.8.9 κανείς
5.8.10 οὐδεκανείς
5.8.11 μηδεκανείς
5.8.12 κάτις/ὁκάτις
5.8.13 ὁκάποιος/κάποιος
5.8.14 καμπόσος/κάμποσος
5.8.15 δεῖνα/ὁδεῖνα
5.8.16 ἐδεποιός
5.8.17 ὁτωποῖος
5.8.18 ταδεποιός
5.9 Relative Pronouns
5.9.1 Definite Relatives ὁπού/πού τόν, τήν, τό ὁποῖος, ὁ ποῖος, ὁ ὁποῖος, ὁ ὅποιος ὁποῖος ὁ ποῖος/ὁ ποιός ὁ ὁποῖος/ὁ ὁποιός ὁ ὅποιος ὅς, ἥ, ὅ Aspects of Usage ὅσπερ, ἥπερ, ὅπερ Usage τόν, τήν, τό + ὅσπερ τίς
5.9.2 Indefinite Relatives ὁποῖος/ὅποιος ὅσος οἷος/ὅγοιος οἱοσδήποτε, ὁποιοσδήποτε ὅστις εἴτις, εἴτι
5.10 Contrastive Pronouns and Determiners
5.10.1 ἄλλος Singular Forms Plural Forms
5.10.2 ἕτερος Masculine and Neuter Forms Feminine Forms
5.11 Reflexive Pronominal Phrases
5.11.1 τὸν ἑαυτό(ν) μου
5.11.2 τὸν ἐμαυτό(ν) μου
5.12 Reciprocal Pronouns
5.12.1 ἀλλήλων
5.12.2 ἀλλήλως
5.12.3 Other Reciprocal Expressions
5.13 Universal and Other Quantifiers
5.13.1 Universal Quantifiers ὅλος πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν ἅπας, ἅπασα, ἅπαν Indeclinable πάσα(ν) and ἅπασα(ν) πασαείς πασακ(ι)ανείς παντοῖος ἀμφότεροι
5.13.2 Distributive Pronouns and Determiners ἕκαστος καθέκαστος καθείς κάθε/κάθα
6 – Numerals
6.1 Cardinals
6.1.1 εἷς/ἕνας
6.1.2 Two
6.1.3 Three
6.1.4 Four
6.1.5 Five to Nine Five Six Seven Eight Nine
6.1.6 The Tens (10–90) Ten to Nineteen Twenty and its Compounds Thirty to Ninety
6.1.7 The Hundreds
6.1.8 Large Numbers
6.2 Ordinals
6.2.1 πρῶτος, -η, -ο(ν)
6.2.2 δεύτερος, δευτέρα/δεύτερη, δεύτερο(ν)
6.2.3 τρίτος, -η, -ο(ν)
6.2.4 τέταρτος, -η, -ο(ν)
6.2.5 πέμπτος, -η, -ο(ν)/πέντατος, -η, -ο(ν)
6.2.6 ἕκτος, -η, -ο(ν)/ἕξατος, -η, -ο(ν)
6.2.7 ἕβδομος, -η, -ο(ν)/ἕπτατος/ἕφτατος, -η, -ο(ν)
6.2.8 ὄγδοος, -η, -ο(ν)/ὄκτατος/ὄχτατος, -η, -ο(ν)
6.2.9 ἔνατος, -η, -ο(ν)
6.2.10 The Tens
6.2.11 Large Numbers
6.2.12 Ordinals in Fractions
6.3 Collective Numerals
6.4 Multiplicative Numerals
6.5 Relative Numerals
Part III – Verb Morphology
1 – Introduction
1.1 Overview of Developments in the Verbal System
1.1.1 Stems
1.1.2 Participles
1.1.3 The Augment
1.1.4 Conjugation
1.1.5 Morphosyntax
1.2 Paradigms and Tables
2 – Stem Formation
2.1 Imperfective Stem
2.1.1 Barytone Verbs Consonant Stems Labial Stems Dental Stems Sibilant Stems Velar Stems Liquid Stems Nasal Stems Vowel Stems Affixation and Modification of the Imperfective Stem Affix -αιν- Affix -σκ-
2.1.2 Oxytone Verbs A-stems and E-stems Affixation and Modification of the Imperfective Stem Addition of /n/ Anaptyxis of /ɣ/ Developments in the Imperfect: Affixes -ουσ-, -αγ-, -ειγ-/ -ηγ- and -ουν- Analogical Levelling in the E-stem Paradigm and the Appearance of /j/ after Stem Consonants
2.1.3 Transfers between Verb Classes Barytone to Oxytone Oxytone to Barytone
2.2 Perfective Stem
2.2.1 Sigmatic Vowel Stems Active Voice Passive Voice Labial Stems Active Voice Passive Voice Velar Stems Active Voice Passive Voice Dental Stems (without underlying velar) Active Voice Passive Voice Nasal Stems Active Voice Passive Voice Voiced Sibilant Stems (without underlying velar) Active Voice Passive Voice Barytone Verbs with a Vocalic Extension /i/ Active Voice Passive Voice Barytone Verbs with a Change of Stem Vowel in the Passive Voice Oxytone Verbs -ησ- and -ηθ- -ηξ- and -ηχθ-/ -ηχτ-, -ηκτ- -ασ- and -ασθ-/ -αστ- -αξ- and -αχθ-/ -αχτ-, -ακτ- -εσ- and -εθ-, -εσθ-/ -εστ- Verbs with an Alternative Stem Formation in -κ- Indicative Other Moods
2.2.2 Non-sigmatic Nasal/liquid stems Nasal Stems Liquid Stems Thematic Aorist Vowel Stems
2.2.3 Addition of /s/ and /n/
2.2.4 Adaptation of Loanwords -άρω/ -ίρω/ -έρω Imperfective Stem Perfective Stem Passive Voice -ιάζω -ίζω Other
2.3 Participles
2.3.1 The Present Passive Participle Barytone Verbs Oxytone Verbs
2.3.2 The “Perfect” Passive Participle
2.4 Peculiarities in Single Verbs
3 – Augment
3.1 Simple Verbs
3.1.1 Consonant-initial Verbs: Syllabic /e/ Augment
3.1.2 Consonant-initial Verbs: Syllabic /i/ Augment Stressed and Unstressed – Broad Geographical Spread Stressed /i/ Augment – Geographically Restricted Unstressed /i/ Augment – Geographically Restricted
3.1.3 Absence of the Syllabic Augment
3.1.4 Vowel-initial Verbs Temporal /i/ Augment Syllabic /e/ Augment Syllabic /i/ Augment Absence of the Augment
3.2 Compound Verbs
3.2.1 Consonant-initial Verbs
3.2.2 Vowel-initial Verbs External Temporal /i/ Augment External Syllabic /e/ Augment External Syllabic /i/ Augment Internal Augment Absence of the Augment
3.3 Prefixed Verbs
3.3.1 Internal Augment Consonant-initial Verbs Internal Syllabic /e/ Augment Internal Syllabic /i/ Augment Vowel-initial Verbs Internal Temporal /i/ Augment Internal Syllabic /e/ Augment Double Internal Augment
3.3.2 External Augment Consonant-initial Prefixes External Syllabic /e/ Augment External Syllabic /i/ Augment Vowel-initial Prefixes External Syllabic /e/ Augment External Temporal/Syllabic /i/ Augment
3.3.3 Double Augment Consonant-initial Verb with Consonant-initial Prefix Internal and External Syllabic /e/ Augment Internal Syllabic /i/ Augment and External Syllabic /e/ Augment Consonant-initial Verb with Vowel-initial Prefix Internal Syllabic /e/ Augment and External Syllabic /e/ Augment Internal Syllabic /e/ Augment and External Temporal /i/ Augment Vowel-initial Verb with Consonant-initial Prefix Internal Temporal /i/ and External Syllabic /e/ Augment Internal and External Syllabic /e/ Augment Internal Temporal /i/ and External Syllabic /i/ Augment Vowel-initial Verb with Vowel-initial Prefix Internal Temporal /i/ and External Syllabic /e/ Augment Internal and External /i/ Augment Internal and External Syllabic /e/ Augment
3.3.4 Absence of the Augment Vowel-initial Prefix Consonant-initial Prefix
4 – Conjugation
4.1 The Present Indicative and Subjunctive
4.1.1 Barytone Verbs Active Voice Passive Voice
4.1.2 Oxytone Verbs Active Voice Passive Voice
4.2 The Aorist Subjunctive
4.2.1 Active Voice
4.2.2 Passive Voice
4.2.3 Verbs with Barytone and Oxytone Forms
4.3 The Imperfect
4.3.1 Barytone Verbs Active Voice Passive Voice
4.3.2 Oxytone Verbs Active Voice Passive Voice
4.4 The Aorist Indicative
4.4.1 Active Voice Barytone and Oxytone Verbs Residual Thematic Aorist
4.4.2 Passive Voice
4.5 The Imperative
4.5.1 The Present Imperative Barytone Verbs Active Voice Passive Voice Oxytone Verbs Active Voice Passive Voice
4.5.2 The Aorist Imperative Active Voice Passive Voice /a/ Imperatives Active Voice Passive Voice Verbs with Barytone and Oxytone Forms
4.6 The Infinitive
4.6.1 The Present Infinitive Active Voice Barytone Verbs Oxytone Verbs Passive Voice Barytone Verbs Oxytone Verbs
4.6.2 The Aorist Infinitive Active Voice Passive Voice Infinitives with Barytone and Oxytone Forms
4.7 The Gerund
4.7.1 Present
4.7.2 Aorist
4.8 The Verb εἶμαι
4.8.1 Present Indicative and Subjunctive
4.8.2 Imperfect
4.8.3 Imperative
4.8.4 Infinitive
4.8.5 Participle and Gerund
4.9 Residual Forms and Innovations
4.9.1 Residual Forms The Middle Aorist Indicative The Middle Aorist Infinitive The Middle Aorist Imperative The Future Indicative The Perfect and Pluperfect The Imperative of Root Aorists 3rd Person Imperatives The Optative
4.9.2 The Middle Voice The Aorist Indicative The Aorist Subjunctive The Aorist Infinitive The Future
4.9.3 The Perfect and Pluperfect Reduplication The Perfect The Pluperfect
5 – Morphosyntax
5.1 The Future
5.1.1 νά + Subjunctive
5.1.2 μέλλω μέλλω + Infinitive μέλλω νά + Subjunctive μέλλει νά + Subjunctive μέλλεται νά + Subjunctive μέλλομαι νά + Aorist Subjunctive μέλλομαι + Infinitive
5.1.3 ἔχω ἔχω + Infinitive ἔχω νά + Subjunctive ἔχει νά + Subjunctive ἔχω + Subjunctive
5.1.4 θέλω θέλω + Infinitive θέλω + Subjunctive θέλει + Subjunctive θέλω νά + Subjunctive θέλει νά + Subjunctive θελά + Subjunctive θὲ(ν) νά + Subjunctive
5.1.5 θά
5.1.6 εἶμαι εἶμαι νά + Aorist Subjunctive εἶναι/εἶν/ἒ(ν) νά + Subjunctive
5.1.7 πά
5.2 The Conditional
5.2.1 ἔμελλον/ἔμελλα ἔμελλον + Infinitive ἔμελλα νά + Subjunctive ἔμελλε(ν)/ἤμελλε(ν) νά + Subjunctive ἔμελλε(ν) νά + Aorist Indicative/Imperfect ἐμέλλετο(ν) νά + Subjunctive
5.2.2 εἶχα εἶχα + Infinitive εἶχα νά + Subjunctive εἶχα + Subjunctive εἶχε(ν) + Subjunctive εἶχα/εἶχε(ν) with Past Tense Complementation
5.2.3 ἤθελα ἤθελα + Infinitive ἤθελα + Subjunctive ἤθελε(ν) + Subjunctive ἤθελα νά + Subjunctive ἤθελα (νά) with Past Tense Complementation ἤθε(ν) with Various Complementations
5.2.4 ἦτον/ἤμουν ἤμουν/ἦτον νά + Subjunctive ἦτον νά with Past Tense Complementation
5.2.5 ἦρτα + Various Complementations
5.3 The Pluperfect
5.3.1 εἶχα εἶχα + Infinitive εἶχα/ἤμουν + Participle εἶχα/ἤμουν + Verbal Adjective εἶχα + Noun εἶχα + Present Gerund εἶχα + Subjunctive εἶχε(ν) + Subjunctive
5.3.2 ἤθελα ἤθελα + Infinitive ἤθελα + Subjunctive ἤθελε ἤμουν + Perfect Passive Participle
5.3.3 ἤμην/ἤμουν ἤμην/ἤμουν + Aorist Gerund ἦτον νά + Subjunctive
5.4 The Perfect
5.4.1 Indicative and Subjunctive ἔχω/εἶμαι + Passive Participle εἶμαι + Perfect Passive Participle with Active Meaning ἔχω + Verbal Adjective ἔχω + Noun ἔχω + Gerund ἔχω + Infinitive
5.4.2 Imperative
5.4.3 Infinitive
5.4.4 Gerund
5.5 The Future Perfect
5.5.1 θέλω + Perfect Infinitive
5.5.2 ἤθελα + Perfect Infinitive
5.5.3 ἤθελα/ἤθελε + Pluperfect
5.5.4 μέλλω/μέλλει νά + Perfect Subjunctive
5.6 The Aorist and the Imperfect
5.6.1 εἶχα/ἤθελα + Aorist Infinitive
5.6.2 εἶχα/ἤθελα + Present Infinitive
5.6.3 εἶχα/ἤμουν + Perfect Passive Participle
5.6.4 εἶχα + Aorist Subjunctive
5.6.5 εἶχα + Present Subjunctive
5.6.6 ἤμην + Present Participle
5.7 The Subjunctive
5.7.1 ἔχω ἔχω + Infinitive ἔχω + Perfect Passive Participle εἶχα + Infinitive
5.7.2 θέλω θέλω + Infinitive θέλω νά + Subjunctive ἤθελα + Infinitive θὲ νά + Subjunctive θά
5.7.3 μέλλω + Infinitive
5.7.4 πά (νά) + Subjunctive
5.7.5 θέλω ἔρθει νά + Subjunctive
Part IV – Syntax
1 – Main Clauses
1.1 Subject and Predicate
1.1.1 Subjects
1.1.2 Nominal and Adjectival Predicative Complements
1.2 Statements
1.2.1 Statements about the Present and the Past
1.2.2 Statements about the Future: Possible and Hypothetical Events Verb Forms Denoting Future/Possible Events Verb Forms Denoting Hypothetical/Conditional Events
1.3 Commands and Prohibitions
1.4 Questions and Exclamations
1.4.1 Questions
1.4.2 Exclamations
1.5 Wishes
2 – Complement Clauses
2.1 Verbs of “Reporting” and “Declaring”
2.2 Control Predicates
2.3 Verbs of “Fearing” and “Precaution”
2.4 Verbs Taking Indirect Questions
3 – Adverbial Clauses
3.1 Final (Purpose) Clauses
3.2 Consecutive (Result) Clauses
3.3 Conditional Clauses
3.3.1 Future/Generic Time Reference Subjunctive in Protasis Past Indicative/Conditional in Protasis
3.3.2 Present Time Reference Present Indicative in Protasis Imperfect/Conditional in Protasis
3.3.3 Past Time Reference Past Indicative in Protasis Conditional in Protasis
3.4 Temporal Clauses
3.4.1 Past-time Temporal Clauses Denoting Preceding/Overlapping Events Preceding the Event Described in the Main Clause Overlapping with the Event Described in the Main Clause
3.4.2 Non-past Temporal Clauses Denoting Preceding/Overlapping Events Preceding the Event Described in the Main Clause Overlapping with the Event Described in the Main Clause
3.4.3 Past/Non-past Temporal Clauses Denoting Following Events Containing Subjunctives Containing Past Indicatives (in Past Time Only)
3.4.4 Other Types of Temporal Clause Nominalized Verb Forms Gerunds
3.5 Causal Clauses
3.6 Concessive Clauses
3.7 Comparative Clauses
3.8 Other Adverbial Clauses
4 – Verbs and Verb Phrases
4.1 Person and Number
4.2 Voice
4.3 Mood
4.4 Time Reference and Aspect
4.4.1 Present Indicative (Present Imperfective Indicative)
4.4.2 Imperfect Indicative (Past Imperfective Indicative)
4.4.3 Aorist Indicative (Past Perfective Indicative)
4.4.4 Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect Indicatives
4.4.5 Future/Conditionals, Subjunctives and Imperatives
4.4.6 Gerunds and Participles
4.4.7 Infinitives
5 – Nouns and Noun Phrases
5.1 Uses of the Cases
5.1.1 Nominative
5.1.2 Vocative
5.1.3 Accusative Complements of Verbs Accusative Adjuncts
5.1.4 Genitive Complements of Verbs Genitive Adjuncts
5.1.5 Dative
5.2 Complements of Nouns
5.2.1 Subjective and Objective Genitives
5.2.2 Partitive Genitives
5.2.3 Clausal Complements
5.3 Adjuncts of Nouns
5.3.1 Genitive Adjuncts
5.3.2 Articles and Other Determiners Definite NPs and the Definite Article Indefinite NPs and Indefinite Determiners Demonstratives
5.3.3 Relative Clauses
6 – Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases
6.1 Simple Prepositional Phrases
6.1.1 Frequently Occurring Prepositions + Accusative
6.1.2 Prepositions of More Limited Frequency
6.2 Phrases with a Governing Adverb
6.2.1 Adverb Governing a PP (Headed by ἀπό/ἐκ, εἰς/ἐπί, μέ)
6.2.2 Adverb + Genitive NP
7 – Coordination and Apposition
7.1 Coordination
7.1.1 Sentences and Clauses
7.1.2 Contrastive and Disjunctive Clausal Coordination
7.1.3 Other Constituents
7.2 Apposition
7.2.1 Appositive Clauses
7.2.2 Appositive NPs
8 – Constituent Order
8.1 General Principles
8.1.1 Topicalization
8.1.2 Focalization
8.2 Clitic Pronouns and the Verbal Complex
8.2.1 V Initial in VC
8.2.2 V Non-Initial in VC: cl+V
8.3 Clitic Pronouns and Periphrastic Verb Forms
Index of Linguistic Terms and Concepts
Index of Greek Words and Phrases
Index of Innovative Greek Endings and Suffixes

David Holton is Emeritus Professor of Modern Greek at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of Selwyn College. He directed the ‘Grammar of Medieval and Early Modern Greek’ research project and has published many articles on Greek language and literature of various periods. His publications include: The Tale of Alexander: The rhymed version (1973, 2nd edition 2002), Erotokritos (1991), Studies on Erotokritos and other Modern Greek Texts (2001), (as editor) Literature and Society in Renaissance Crete (Cambridge, 1991), and (as a co-author) two grammars of Modern Greek.

Geoffrey Horrocks is Emeritus Professor of Comparative Philology at the University of Cambridge and a Professorial Fellow of St John’s College. He is a leading international authority on the history and structure of Greek, and over the last forty years has published widely on the morphology, syntax and semantics of the ancient, medieval and modern language. His publications include the groundbreaking monograph Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers (2nd edition, 2010). In 2012 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens for his services to Greek linguistics.

Marjolijne Janssen studied Medieval and Modern Greek at the University of Amsterdam, where she then taught language and linguistics and collaborated on the compilation of the comprehensive dictionary Prisma Groot Woordenboek Nederlands-Nieuwgrieks en Nieuwgrieks-Nederlands. She has been involved with the ‘Grammar of Medieval and Early Modern Greek’ Project since 2007 and has published a number of articles arising from it.

Tina Lendari is Assistant Professor in Medieval Vernacular and Early Modern Greek Language and Literature at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. She studied at the Universities of Crete and Cambridge and has taught at the Universities of Crete, Patras, Ioannina, Thessaloniki and Cambridge. From 2004 to 2007 she was a Research Associate on the ‘Grammar of Medieval and Early Modern Greek’ Project. She has published many articles on textual criticism, linguistic analysis and literary theory as applied to medieval and early modern Greek literature and produced the editio princeps of the romance Livistros and Rodamne, version V. Her current project is a new edition of the romance Velthandros and Chrysantza.

Io Manolessou studied Greek literature and linguistics at the Universities of Athens and Cambridge. She has worked as a Research Associate at the University of Cambridge and as a Lecturer in Historical Linguistics at the University of Patras. She now holds the post of Senior Researcher at the Academy of Athens, working on the compilation of the Historical Dictionary of Modern Greek. She has participated in a number of international research projects on Greek dialectology and linguistics, and has published more than fifty papers on various topics focusing on Greek language history, dialectology and lexicography.

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