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# Statistics 11th Edition by Robert S. Witte, ISBN-13: 978-1119254515

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Statistics 11th Edition by Robert S. Witte, ISBN-13: 978-1119254515
[PDF eBook eTextbook]

496 pages
Publisher: Wiley; 11 edition (December 27, 2016)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1119254515
ISBN-13: 978-1119254515

Drawing upon over 40 years of experience, the authors of Statistics, 11th Edition provide students with a clear and methodical approach to essential statistical procedures. The text clearly explains the basic concepts and procedures of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. It features an emphasis on expressions involving sums of squares and degrees of freedom as well as a strong stress on the importance of variability. This accessible approach will help students tackle such perennially mystifying topics as the standard deviation, variance interpretation of the correlation coefficient, hypothesis tests, degrees of freedom, p-values, and estimates of effect size.

Preface……Page 3
Contents……Page 6
Introduction……Page 14
WHAT IS STATISTICS?……Page 15
THREE TYPES OF DATA……Page 19
LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT……Page 20
TYPES OF VARIABLES……Page 24
HOW TO USE THIS BOOK……Page 28
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 30
— Descriptive Statistics……Page 33
Tables & Graphs……Page 34
TABLES (FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS) FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR QUANTITATIVE DATA……Page 35
GUIDELINES……Page 36
OUTLIERS……Page 39
RELATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS……Page 40
CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS……Page 42
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS FOR QUALITATIVE (NOMINAL) DATA……Page 43
INTERPRETING DISTRIBUTIONS CONSTRUCTED BY OTHERS……Page 44
GRAPHS FOR QUANTITATIVE DATA……Page 45
TYPICAL SHAPES……Page 49
A GRAPH FOR QUALITATIVE (NOMINAL) DATA……Page 51
DOING IT YOURSELF……Page 53
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 55
Averages……Page 59
MODE……Page 60
MEDIAN……Page 61
MEAN……Page 63
WHICH AVERAGE?……Page 65
AVERAGES FOR QUALITATIVE AND RANKED DATA……Page 67
NOTE ON COMPUTATIONAL ACCURACY……Page 69
Variability……Page 72
INTUITIVE APPROACH……Page 73
RANGE……Page 74
VARIANCE……Page 75
STANDARD DEVIATION……Page 76
DETAILS: STANDARD DEVIATION……Page 79
)……Page 87
INTERQUARTILE RANGE (IQR)……Page 88
MEASURES OF VARIABILITY FOR QUALITATIVE AND RANKED DATA……Page 90
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 91
Normal Distributions & Standard (z) Scores……Page 94
THE NORMAL CURVE……Page 95
SCORES……Page 98
STANDARD NORMAL CURVE……Page 99
SOLVING NORMAL CURVE PROBLEMS……Page 101
FINDING PROPORTIONS……Page 102
FINDING SCORES……Page 107
SCORES……Page 112
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 115
Correlation……Page 119
AN INTUITIVE APPROACH……Page 120
SCATTERPLOTS……Page 121
A CORRELATION COEFFICIENT FOR QUANTITATIVE DATA:……Page 125
DETAILS: COMPUTATION FORMULA FOR……Page 129
OUTLIERS AGAIN……Page 130
OTHER TYPES OF CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS……Page 131
COMPUTER OUTPUT……Page 132
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 136
Regression……Page 138
TWO ROUGH PREDICTIONS……Page 139
A REGRESSION LINE……Page 140
LEAST SQUARES REGRESSION LINE……Page 142
STANDARD ERROR OF ESTIMATE,……Page 145
ASSUMPTIONS……Page 147
INTERPRETATION OF……Page 148
REGRESSION TOWARD THE MEAN……Page 153
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 156
— Inferential Statistics……Page 158
Populations, Samples & Probability……Page 159
POPULATIONS……Page 160
SAMPLES……Page 161
TABLES OF RANDOM NUMBERS……Page 162
RANDOM ASSIGNMENT OF SUBJECTS……Page 164
SURVEYS OR EXPERIMENTS?……Page 165
DEFINITION……Page 166
MULTIPLICATION RULE……Page 168
PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS……Page 172
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 174
Sampling Distribution of the Mean……Page 179
WHAT IS A SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION?……Page 180
CREATING A SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION FROM SCRATCH……Page 181
)……Page 184
)……Page 185
SHAPE OF THE SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION……Page 187
OTHER SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS……Page 189
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 190
Intro to Hypothesis Testing – z Test……Page 193
TESTING A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT SAT SCORES……Page 194
TEST FOR A POPULATION MEAN……Page 196
STEP-BY-STEP PROCEDURE……Page 197
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM……Page 198
)……Page 199
DECISION RULE……Page 200
DECISION……Page 201
INTERPRETATION……Page 202
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 204
WHY HYPOTHESIS TESTS?……Page 207
STRONG OR WEAK DECISIONS……Page 208
ONE-TAILED AND TWO-TAILED TESTS……Page 210
CHOOSING A LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE ( )……Page 213
TESTING A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT VITAMIN C……Page 214
FOUR POSSIBLE OUTCOMES……Page 215
REALLY IS TRUE……Page 217
EFFECT……Page 218
EFFECT……Page 220
INFLUENCE OF SAMPLE SIZE……Page 222
POWER AND SAMPLE SIZE……Page 224
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 229
Estimation (Confidence Intervals)……Page 232
CONFIDENCE INTERVAL (CI) FOR……Page 233
LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE……Page 237
EFFECT OF SAMPLE SIZE……Page 238
CONFIDENCE INTERVAL FOR POPULATION PERCENT……Page 239
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 242
Test for 1 Sample……Page 244
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF……Page 245
TEST……Page 248
)……Page 249
TEST……Page 250
BASED ON……Page 252
ASSUMPTIONS……Page 253
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 254
Test for 2 Independent Samples……Page 256
EPO EXPERIMENT……Page 257
STATISTICAL HYPOTHESES……Page 258
–……Page 259
TEST……Page 261
TEST……Page 263
CONTROL……Page 264
-VALUES……Page 266
STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT RESULTS……Page 269
ESTIMATING EFFECT SIZE: POINT ESTIMATES AND CONFIDENCE INTERVALS……Page 270
ESTIMATING EFFECT SIZE: COHEN’S……Page 273
IMPORTANCE OF REPLICATION……Page 275
REPORTS IN THE LITERATURE……Page 276
ASSUMPTIONS……Page 277
COMPUTER OUTPUT……Page 278
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 280
Test for 2 related Samples……Page 284
EPO EXPERIMENT WITH REPEATED MEASURES……Page 285
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF……Page 288
TEST……Page 289
TEST……Page 290
ESTIMATING EFFECT SIZE……Page 292
TESTS FOR POPULATION MEANS……Page 294
TEST FOR THE POPULATION CORRELATION COEFFICIENT,……Page 296
TEST FOR A POPULATION CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Greeting Card Exchange)……Page 298
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 299
ANOVA (1 Factor)……Page 303
TESTING A HYPOTHESIS ABOUT SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND AGGRESSION……Page 304
TWO SOURCES OF VARIABILITY……Page 305
TEST……Page 307
DETAILS: VARIANCE ESTIMATES……Page 310
RATIO……Page 315
DISTRIBUTION……Page 316
ANOVA SUMMARY TABLES……Page 318
ESTIMATING EFFECT SIZE……Page 319
MULTIPLE COMPARISONS……Page 322
REPORTS IN THE LITERATURE……Page 326
COMPUTER OUTPUT……Page 327
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 330
ANOVA (Repeated Measures)……Page 333
SLEEP DEPRIVATION EXPERIMENT WITH REPEATED MEASURES……Page 334
TEST……Page 335
TWO COMPLICATIONS……Page 336
DETAILS: VARIANCE ESTIMATES……Page 337
RATIO……Page 340
ANOVA SUMMARY TABLES……Page 342
MULTIPLE COMPARISONS……Page 344
REPORTS IN THE LITERATURE……Page 346
ASSUMPTIONS……Page 347
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 348
ANOVA (2 Factors)……Page 350
A TWO-FACTOR EXPERIMENT: RESPONSIBILITY IN CROWDS……Page 351
TESTS……Page 353
INTERACTION……Page 355
DETAILS: VARIANCE ESTIMATES……Page 358
RATIOS……Page 362
ESTIMATING EFFECT SIZE……Page 364
MULTIPLE COMPARISONS……Page 365
SIMPLE EFFECTS……Page 366
REPORTS IN THE LITERATURE……Page 369
OTHER TYPES OF ANOVA……Page 371
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 372
Chi-Square (χ2) Test for Qualitative (Nominal) Data……Page 376
STATISTICAL HYPOTHESES……Page 377
DETAILS: CALCULATING……Page 378
DISTRIBUTION……Page 380
TEST……Page 381
LOST LETTER STUDY……Page 383
DETAILS: CALCULATING……Page 384
TEST……Page 387
ESTIMATING EFFECT SIZE……Page 388
ODDS RATIOS……Page 389
SOME PRECAUTIONS……Page 391
COMPUTER OUTPUT……Page 392
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 393
Tests for Ranked (Ordinal) Data……Page 397
TEST (TWO INDEPENDENT SAMPLES)……Page 398
TEST (TWO RELATED SAMPLES)……Page 403
TEST (THREE OR MORE INDEPENDENT SAMPLES)……Page 407
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 411
Postscript – which Test?……Page 414
QUANTITATIVE OR QUALITATIVE DATA?……Page 415
DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN THE TWO TYPES OF DATA……Page 417
ONE, TWO, OR MORE GROUPS?……Page 418
REVIEW QUESTIONS……Page 419
Math Review……Page 422
A.1 PRETEST……Page 423
A.3 ORDER OF OPERATIONS……Page 424
A.4 POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE NUMBERS……Page 425
A.5 FRACTIONS……Page 426
A.6 SQUARE ROOT RADICALS ( )……Page 427
A.9 ANSWERS (WITH RELEVANT REVIEW SECTIONS)……Page 428
Tables……Page 468
Glossary……Page 482
Index……Page 487
Symbols……Page 491
Selecting appropriate Hypothesis Test……Page 492

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