**Principles of Electric Circuits: Conventional Current Version GLOBAL 10th Edition by Thomas Floyd, ISBN-13: 978-1292358093**

[PDF eBook eTextbook]

- Publisher: Pearson; 10th edition (June 15, 2021)
- Language: English
- 1029 pages
- ISBN-10: 1292358092
- ISBN-13: 978-1292358093

**For courses in DC/AC circuits: conventional flow.**

Complete, accessible introductionto DC/AC circuits.

* Principles of Electric Circuits: Conventional Current Version* provides a uniquely clear introduction tofundamental circuit laws and components, using math only when needed forunderstanding. Floyd’s acclaimed coverage of troubleshooting ― combined with exercises,examples, and illustrations ― gives students the problem-solving experience they need to step outsidethe classroom and into a job. The 10th edition has beenheavily modified to improve readability and clarity and to update the text toreflect developments in technology since the last edition. This edition alsoadds new step-by-step procedures for solving problems with the TI-84 Plus CEgraphing calculator.

**Table of Contents:**

Principles of Electric Circuits Conventional Current

Preface

New in This Edition

Features

Student Resources

Instructor Resources

Illustration of Chapter Features

Suggestions for Teaching with Principles of Electric Circuits

To the Student

Careers in Electronics

Milestones in Electronics

Contents

1 Quantities and Units

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Visit The Companion Website

1–1 Units of Measurement

Base and Derived Units

1–2 Scientific Notation

Powers of Ten

Calculations with Powers of Ten

Addition

Subtraction

Multiplication

Division

1–3 Engineering Notation and Metric Prefixes

Engineering Notation

Metric Prefixes

Calculator Tip

1–4 Metric Unit Conversions

1–5 Measured Numbers

Error, Accuracy, and Precision

Significant Digits

Rounding Off Numbers

Summary

Key Terms

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Problems

Section 1–2 Scientific Notation

Section 1–3 Engineering Notation and Metric Prefixes

Section 1–4 Metric Unit Conversions

Section 1–5 Measured Numbers

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 1–1 Units of Measurement

Section 1–2 Scientific Notation

Section 1–3 Engineering Notation and Metric Prefixes

Section 1–4 Metric Unit Conversions

Section 1–5 Measured Numbers

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

2 Voltage, Current, and Resistance

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

2–1 Atomic Structure

Atomic Number

Shells, Orbits, and Energy Levels

Valence Electrons

Energy Levels and Ionization Energy

The Copper Atom

Categories of Materials

Conductors

Semiconductors

Insulators

2–2 Electrical Charge

Coulomb: The Unit of Charge

Positive and Negative Charge

2–3 Voltage

The Volt

The Voltage Source

The Ideal Voltage Source

Types of DC Voltage Sources

Batteries

Fuel Cells

Solar Cells

DC Generator

The Electronic Power Supply

Thermocouples

Piezoelectric Sensors

2–4 Current

The Current Source

The Ideal Current Source

Practical Current Sources

2–5 Resistance

Resistors

Fixed Resistors

Resistor Color Codes

Five-Band Color Code

Exceptions

Resistor Label Codes

Variable Resistors

Variable Resistance Sensors

2–6 The Electric Circuit

Direction of Current

The Basic Circuit

The Electric Circuit Schematic

Current Control and Protection

Mechanical Switches

Semiconductor Switches

Protective Devices

Wires

Wire Resistance

Ground

2–7 Basic Circuit Measurements

Meter Symbols

Measuring Current

Measuring Voltage

Measuring Resistance

Digital Multimeters

DMM Functions

DMM Displays

Resolution

Accuracy

Categories for Multimeters

Reading Analog Multimeters

The Ohm Scale

The AC-DC and DC mA Scales

2–8 Electrical Safety

Electric Shock

Effects of Current on the Human Body

Body Resistance

Utility Voltages

Safety Precautions

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Problems and Questions?

Section 2–2 Electrical Charge

Section 2–3 Voltage

Section 2–4 Current

Section 2–5 Resistance

Section 2–6 The Electric Circuit

Section 2–7 Basic Circuit Measurements

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 2–1 Atomic Structure

Section 2–2 Electrical Charge

Section 2–3 Voltage

Section 2–4 Current

Section 2–5 Resistance

Section 2–6 The Electric Circuit

Section 2–7 Basic Circuit Measurements

Section 2–8 Electrical Safety

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

3 Ohm’s Law

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

3–1 The Relationship of Current, Voltage, and Resistance

The Linear Relationship of Current and Voltage

The Inverse Relationship of Current and Resistance

3–2 Current Calculations

Units with Metric Prefixes

3–3 Voltage Calculations

Units with Metric Prefixes

3–4 Resistance Calculations

Units with Metric Prefixes

3–5 Introduction to Troubleshooting

Analysis

Planning

Measuring

An APM Example

The Analysis Thought Process

The Planning Thought Process

The Measurement Process

Comparison of V, R, and I Measurements

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 3–4

Refer to Figure 3–14

Refer to Figure 3–25

Refer to Figure 3–27

Problems

Section 3–1 The Relationship of Current, Voltage, and Resistance

Section 3–2 Current Calculations

Section 3–3 Voltage Calculations

Section 3–4 Resistance Calculations

Section 3–5 Introduction to Troubleshooting

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 3–1 The Relationship of Current, Voltage, and Resistance

Section 3–2 Current Calculations

Section 3–3 Voltage Calculations

Section 3–4 Resistance Calculations

Section 3–5 Introduction to Troubleshooting

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

4 Energy and Power

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

4–1 Energy and Power

The Kilowatt-hour (kWh) Unit of Energy

4–2 Power in an Electric Circuit

4–3 Resistor Power Ratings

Measuring Resistance with a Digital Multimeter (DMM)

Measuring Resistance with an Analog Volt-Ohmmeter

4–4 Energy Conversion and Voltage Drop in Resistance

4–5 Power Supplies and Batteries

Power Supply Efficiency

Ampere-Hour Ratings of Batteries

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Problems

Section 4–1 Energy and Power

Section 4–2 Power in an Electric Circuit

Section 4–3 Resistor Power Ratings

Section 4–4 Energy Conversion and Voltage Drop in Resistance

Section 4–5 Power Supplies and Batteries

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 4–1 Energy and Power

Section 4–2 Power in an Electric Circuit

Section 4–3 Resistor Power Ratings

Section 4–4 Energy Conversion and Voltage Drop in Resistance

Section 4–5 Power Supplies and Batteries

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

5 Series Circuits

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit The Companion Website

5–1 Resistors in Series

5–2 Total Series Resistance

Series Resistor Values Add

Series Resistance Formula

Equal-Value Series Resistors

5–3 Current in a Series Circuit

5–4 Application of Ohm’s Law

5–5 Voltage Sources in Series

5–6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

5–7 Voltage Dividers

Voltage-Divider Formula

A Potentiometer as an Adjustable Voltage Divider

Applications

5–8 Power in Series Circuits

5–9 Voltage Measurements

Measuring Voltages with Respect to Ground

5–10 Troubleshooting

Open Circuit

Troubleshooting an Open

Example of Half-Splitting Using Voltage Measurements

Short Circuit

Troubleshooting a Short

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 5–68

Refer to Figure 5–69

Refer to Figure 5–73

Refer to Figure 5–80(b)

Refer to Figure 5–87

Problems

Section 5–1 Resistors in Series

Section 5–2 Total Series Resistance

Section 5–3 Current in a Series Circuit

Section 5–4 Application of Ohm’s Law

Section 5–5 Voltage Sources in Series

Section 5–6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

Section 5–7 Voltage Dividers

Section 5–8 Power in Series Circuits

Section 5–9 Voltage Measurements

Section 5– 10 Troubleshooting

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 5–1 Resistors in Series

Section 5–2 Total Series Resistance

Section 5–3 Current in a Series Circuit

Section 5–4 Application of Ohm’s Law

Section 5–5 Voltage Sources in Series

Section 5–6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

Section 5–7 Voltage Dividers

Section 5–8 Power in Series Circuits

Section 5–9 Voltage Measurements

Section 5–10 Troubleshooting

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

6 Parallel Circuits

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

6–1 Resistors in Parallel

6–2 Voltage in a Parallel Circuit

6–3 Kirchhoff’s Current Law

6–4 Total Parallel Resistance

Formula for Total Parallel Resistance

Calculator Tip

The Case of Two Resistors in Parallel

The Case of Equal-Value Resistors in Parallel

Determining an Unknown Parallel Resistor

Notation for Parallel Resistors

6–5 Application of Ohm’s Law

6–6 Current Sources in Parallel

6–7 Current Dividers

Current-Divider Formula

Current-Divider Formulas for Two Branches

6–8 Power in Parallel Circuits

6–9 Parallel Circuit Applications

Automotive

Residential

Control Circuits

Analog Ammeters

6–10 Troubleshooting

Open Branches

Finding an Open Branch by Current Measurement

Finding an Open Branch by Resistance Measurement

Shorted Branches

Thermal Imaging

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 6–64

Refer to Figure 6–70(b)

Refer to Figure 6–71

Refer to Figure 6–75

Refer to Figure 6–83

Problems

Section 6–1 Resistors in Parallel

Section 6–2 Voltage in a Parallel Circuit

Section 6–3 Kirchhoff’s Current Law

Section 6–4 Total Parallel Resistance

Section 6–5 Application of Ohm’s Law

Section 6–6 Current Sources in Parallel

Section 6–7 Current Dividers

Section 6–8 Power in Parallel Circuits

Section 6–10 Troubleshooting

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 6–1 Resistors in Parallel

Section 6–2 Voltage in a Parallel Circuit

Section 6–3 Kirchhoff’s Current Law

Section 6–4 Total Parallel Resistance

Section 6–5 Application of Ohm’s Law

Section 6–6 Current Sources in Parallel

Section 6–7 Current Dividers

Section 6–8 Power in Parallel Circuits

Section 6–9 Parallel Circuit Applications

Section 6–10 Troubleshooting

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

self-test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

7 Series-Parallel Circuits

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

7–1 Identifying Series-Parallel Relationships

7–2 Analysis of Series-Parallel Resistive Circuits

Total Resistance

Total Current

Branch Currents

Voltage Drops

7–3 Voltage Dividers with Resistive Loads

A Practical Application

Load Current and Bleeder Current

7–4 Loading Effect of a Voltmeter

7–5 Ladder Networks

The R/2R Ladder Network

7–6 The Wheatstone Bridge

The Balanced Wheatstone Bridge

Using the Balanced Wheatstone Bridge to Find an Unknown Resistance

The Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge

A Bridge Circuit for Measuring Temperature

Other Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge Applications

7–7 Troubleshooting

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self–Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 7–61(b)

Refer to Figure 7–63

Refer to Figure 7–67

Refer to Figure 7–73

Refer to Figure 7–74

Refer to Figure 7–79

Problems

Section 7–1 Identifying Series-Parallel Relationships

Section 7–2 Analysis of Series-Parallel Resistive Circuits

Section 7–3 Voltage Dividers with Resistive Loads

Section 7–4 Loading Effect of a Voltmeter

Section 7–5 Ladder Networks

Section 7–6 The Wheatstone Bridge

Section 7–7 Troubleshooting

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 7–1 Identifying Series-Parallel Relationships

Section 7–2 Analysis of Series-Parallel Resistive Circuits

Section 7–3 Voltage Dividers with Resistive Loads

Section 7–4 Loading Effect of a Voltmeter

Section 7–5 Ladder Networks

Section 7–6 The Wheatstone Bridge

Section 7–7 Troubleshooting

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics quiz

8 Circuit Theorems and Conversions

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

8–1 The DC Voltage Source

Loading of the Voltage Source

Determining the Internal Resistance of a Voltage Source

8–2 The Current Source

8–3 Source Conversions

Converting a Voltage Source to a Current Source

Converting a Current Source to a Voltage Source

8–4 The Superposition Theorem

8–5 Thevenin’s Theorem

Thevenin Equivalency Depends on the Viewpoint

Thevenizing a Portion of a Circuit

Thevenizing a Bridge Circuit

An Alternate Approach

Summary of Thevenin’s Theorem

Determining VTH and RTH by Measurement

An Example of a Practical Application

8–6 Norton’s Theorem

Norton’s Equivalent Current (IN)

Norton’s Equivalent Resistance (RN)

Summary of Norton’s Theorem

An Example of a Practical Application

8–7 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

8–8 Delta-to-Wye (Δ-to-Y) and Wye-to-Delta (Y-to-Δ) Conversions

Δ-to-Y Conversion

Y-to-Δ Conversion

Application of Δ-to-Y Conversion to a Bridge Circuit

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

Δ-to-Y Conversions

Y-to- Δ Conversions

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 8–74

Refer to Figure 8–82

Refer to Figure 8–84

Refer to Figure 8–87

Refer to Figure 8–89

Refer to Figure 8–90(d)

Problems

Section 8–3 Source Conversions

Section 8–4 The Superposition Theorem

Section 8–5 Thevenin’s Theorem

Section 8–6 Norton’s Theorem

Section 8–7 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Section 8–8 Delta-to-Wye (Δ-to-Y) and Wye-to-Delta (Y-to-Δ) Conversions

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 8–1 The DC Voltage Source

Section 8–2 The Current Source

Section 8–3 Source Conversions

Section 8–4 The Superposition Theorem

Section 8–5 Thevenin’s Theorem

Section 8–6 Norton’s Theorem

Section 8–7 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Section 8–8 Delta-to-Wye (Δ-to-Y) and Wye-to-Delta (Y-to-Δ) Conversions

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

9 Branch, Loop, and Node Analyses

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

9–1 Simultaneous Equations in Circuit Analysis

Standard Form Equations

Solutions of Simultaneous Equations

Solving by Substitution

Solving by Elimination

Solving by Determinants

Solving Matrices by Calculator

9–2 Branch Current Method

9–3 Loop Current Method

Circuits with More Than Two Loops

9–4 Node Voltage Method

Node Voltage Method for a Wheatstone Bridge

Node Voltage Method for the Bridged-T Circuit

Summary

Key Terms

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 9–30.

Refer to Figure 9–31.

Refer to Figure 9–34.

Refer to Figure 9–36.

Problems

Section 9–1 Simultaneous Equations in Circuit Analysis

Section 9–2 Branch Current Method

Section 9–3 Loop Current Method

Section 9–4 Node Voltage Method

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 9–1 Simultaneous Equations in Circuit Analysis

Section 9–2 Branch Current Method

Section 9–3 Loop Current Method

Section 9–4 Node Voltage Method

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit DYnamics Quiz

10 Magnetism and Electromagnetism

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

10–1 The Magnetic Field

Magnetic Flux (ϕ)

Magnetic Flux Density (B)

The Gauss

How Materials Become Magnetized

Effects of the Magnetic Material

Applications

10–2 Electromagnetism

Electromagnetic Properties

Permeability (μ)

Reluctance (R)

Magnetomotive Force (mmf)

The Electromagnet

10–3 Electromagnetic Devices

The Solenoid

The Solenoid Valve

The Relay

The Speaker

Meter Movement

Magnetic Disk and Tape Read/Write Head

Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM)

10–4 Magnetic Hysteresis

Magnetic Field Intensity (H)

The Hysteresis Curve and Retentivity

10–5 Electromagnetic Induction

Relative Motion

Polarity of the Induced Voltage

Induced Current

Faraday’s law

Lenz’s Law

An Application of Electromagnetic Induction

Forces on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field (Motor Action)

10–6 The DC Generator

Equivalent Circuit for a DC Generator

MHD Generator

10–7 The DC Motor

Basic Operation

Brushless DC Motors

Back EMF

Motor Ratings

The Series DC Motor

The Shunt DC Motor

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Problems

Section 10–1 The Magnetic Field

Section 10–2 Electromagnetism

Section 10–3 Electromagnetic Devices

Section 10–4 Magnetic Hysteresis

Section 10–5 Electromagnetic Induction

Section 10–6 The DC Generator

Section 10–7 The DC Motor

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 10–1 The Magnetic Field

Section 10–2 Electromagnetism

Section 10–3 Electromagnetic Devices

Section 10–4 Magnetic Hysteresis

Section 10–5 Electromagnetic Induction

Section 10–6 The DC Generator

Section 10–7 The DC Motor

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

11 Introduction to Alternating Current and Voltage

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

11–1 The Sinusoidal Waveform

Polarity of a Sine Wave

Period of a Sine Wave

Frequency of a Sine Wave

Relationship of Frequency and Period

Electronic Signal Generators

Function Generators and Arbitrary Function Generators

Arbitrary Waveform Generators

11–2 Sinusoidal Voltage and Current Values

Instantaneous Value

Peak Value

Peak-to-Peak Value

RMS Value

Average Value

11–3 Angular Measurement of a Sine Wave

Angular Measurement

Radian/Degree Conversion

Sine Wave Angles

Phase of a Sine Wave

Polyphase Power

11–4 The Sine Wave Formula

Expressions for Phase-Shifted Sine Waves

11–5 Introduction to Phasors

Phasor Representation of a Sine Wave

Phasors and the Sine Wave Formula

Positive and Negative Phasor Angles

Phasor Diagrams

Angular Velocity of a Phasor

11–6 Analysis of AC Circuits

Superimposed DC and AC Voltages

11–7 The Alternator (AC Generator)

Simplified Alternator

Frequency

Practical Alternators

Rotating-Armature Alternators

Rotating-Field Alternator

Rotor Current

An Application

11–8 The AC Motor

AC Motor Classification

Rotating Stator Field

Induction Motors

Operation of an Induction Motor

Synchronous Motors

Operation of a Synchronous Motor

11–9 Nonsinusoidal Waveforms

Pulse Waveforms

Repetitive Pulses

Square Waves

The Average Value of a Pulse Waveform

Triangular and Sawtooth Waveforms

Triangular Waveforms

Sawtooth Waveforms

Harmonics

Odd Harmonics

Even Harmonics

Composite Waveform

11–10 The Oscilloscope

Basic Operation of Analog Oscilloscopes

Basic Operation of Digital Oscilloscopes

Oscilloscope Controls

Vertical Controls

Horizontal Controls

Trigger Controls

Coupling a Signal into the Scope

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 11–81

Refer to Figure 11–83

Refer to Figure 11–90

Refer to Figure 11–91

Problems

Section 11–1 The Sinusoidal Waveform

Section 11–2 Sinusoidal Voltage and Current Values

Section 11–3 Angular Measurement of a Sine Wave

Section 11–4 The Sine Wave Formula

Section 11–5 Introduction to Phasors

Section 11–6 Analysis of AC Circuits

Section 11–7 The Alternator (AC Generator)

Section 11–8 The AC Motor

Section 11–9 Nonsinusoidal Waveforms

Section 11–10 The Oscilloscope

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 11–1 The Sinusoidal Waveform

Section 11–2 Sinusoidal Voltage and Current Values

Section 11–3 Angular Measurement of a Sine Wave

Section 11–4 The Sine Wave Formula

Section 11–5 Introduction to Phasors

Section 11–6 Analysis of AC Circuits

Section 11–7 The Alternator (AC Generator)

Section 11–8 The AC Motor

Section 11– 9 Nonsinusoidal Waveforms

Section 11–10 The Oscilloscope

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

12 Capacitors

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

12–1 The Basic Capacitor

Basic Construction

How a Capacitor Stores Charge

Capacitance

The Unit of Capacitance

How a Capacitor Stores Energy

Voltage Rating

Dielectric Strength

Temperature Coefficient

Leakage

Physical Characteristics of a Capacitor

Plate Area

Plate Separation

Dielectric Constant

Formula

12–2 Types of Capacitors

Fixed Capacitors

Mica Capacitors

Ceramic Capacitors

Plastic-Film Capacitors

Electrolytic Capacitors

Variable Capacitors

Capacitor Labeling

Capacitance Measurement

12–3 Series Capacitors

Total Capacitance

Two Capacitors in Series

Capacitors of Equal Value in Series

Capacitor Voltages

12–4 Parallel Capacitors

12–5 Capacitors in DC Circuits

Charging a Capacitor

Discharging a Capacitor

Current and Voltage During Charging and Discharging

The RC Time Constant

The Charging and Discharging Curves

General Formula

Charging from Zero

Discharging to Zero

Graphical Method Using Universal Exponential Curves

Time-Constant Percentage Tables

Solving for Time

Response to a Square Wave

12–6 Capacitors in AC Circuits

Phase Relationship of Current and Voltage in a Capacitor

Capacitive Reactance, XC

Reactance for Series Capacitors

Reactance for Parallel Capacitors

Ohm’s Law

Capacitive Voltage Divider

Power in a Capacitor

Instantaneous Power (p)

True Power (Ptrue)

Reactive Power (Pr)

12–7 Capacitor Applications

Electrical Storage

Power Supply Filtering

The Capacitor as a Power Supply Filter

DC Blocking and AC Coupling

Power Line Decoupling

Bypassing

Signal Filters

Timing Circuits

Computer Memories

12–8 Switched-Capacitor Circuits

Basic Operation

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 12–74

Refer to Figure 12–75

Refer to Figure 12–78

Refer to Figure 12–81(b)

Problems

Section 12–1 The Basic Capacitor

Section 12–2 Types of Capacitors

Section 12–3 Series Capacitors

Section 12–4 Parallel Capacitors

Section 12–5 Capacitors in DC Circuits

Section 12–6 Capacitors in AC Circuits

Section 12–7 Capacitor Applications

Section 12–8 Switched-Capacitor Circuits

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 12–1 The Basic Capacitor

Section 12–2 Types of Capacitors

Section 12–3 Series Capacitors

Section 12–4 Parallel Capacitors

Section 12–5 Capacitors in DC Circuits

Section 12–6 Capacitors in AC Circuits

Section 12–7 Capacitor Applications

Section 12–8 Switched-Capacitor Circuits

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics QUIZ

13 Inductors

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

13–1 The Basic Inductor

Inductance

The Unit of Inductance

Energy Storage

Physical Characteristics of an Inductor

Core Material

Physical Parameters

Winding Resistance

Winding Capacitance

Measuring Inductors

Review of Faraday’s Law

Lenz’s Law

13–2 Types of Inductors

13–3 Series and Parallel Inductors

Total Series Inductance

Total Parallel Inductance

13–4 Inductors in DC Circuits

The RL Time Constant

Current in an Inductor

Increasing Current

Decreasing Current

Response to a Square Wave

Voltages in a Series RL Circuit

The Exponential Formulas

Increasing Current

Decreasing Current

13–5 Inductors in AC Circuits

Phase Relationship of Current and Voltage in an Inductor

Inductive Reactance, XL

Reactance for Series Inductors

Reactance for Parallel Inductors

Ohm’s Law

Power in an Inductor

Instantaneous Power (p)

True Power (Ptrue)

Reactive Power (Pr)

The Quality Factor (Q) of a Coil

13–6 Inductor Applications

Noise Suppression

Conductive Noise

Radiated Noise

RF Chokes

Tuned Circuits

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 13–48

Refer to Figure 13–51

Refer to Figure 13–54

Refer to Figure 13–55

Problems

Section 13–1 The Basic Inductor

Section 13–3 Series and Parallel Inductors

Section 13–4 Inductors in DC Circuits

Section 13–5 Inductors in AC Circuits

Section 13–6

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 13–1 The Basic Inductor

Section 13–2 Types of Inductors

Section 13–3 Series and Parallel Inductors

Section 13–4 Inductors in DC Circuits

Section 13–5 Inductors in AC Circuits

Section 13–6 Inductor Applications

Related Problem for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics quiz

14 Transformers

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion WebSite

14–1 Mutual Inductance

Coefficient of Coupling

Formula for Mutual Inductance

14–2 The Basic Transformer

Turns Ratio

Direction of Windings

14–3 Step-Up and Step-Down Transformers

The Step-Up Transformer

The Step-Down Transformer

DC Isolation

14–4 Loading the Secondary

Primary Power Equals Load Power

14–5 Reflected Load

14–6 Impedance Matching

14–7 Transformer Ratings and Characteristics

Ratings

Power Rating

Voltage and Frequency Ratings

Characteristics

Winding Resistance

Losses in the Core

Magnetic Flux Leakage

Winding Capacitance

Transformer Efficiency

14–8 Tapped and Multiple-Winding Transformers

Tapped Transformers

Multiple-Winding Transformers

Autotransformers

Three-Phase Transformers

14–9 Troubleshooting

Open Primary Winding

Open Secondary Winding

Shorted or Partially Shorted Windings

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 14–47(c)

Refer to Figure 14–49

Refer to Figure 14–53

Refer to Figure 14–54

Problems

Section 14–1 Mutual Inductance

Section 14–2 The Basic Transformer

Section 14–3 Step-Up and Step-Down Transformers

Section 14–4 Loading the Secondary

Section 14–5 Reflected Load

Section 14–6 Impedance Matching

Section 14–7 Transformer Ratings and Characteristics

Section 14–8 Tapped and Multiple-Winding Transformers

Section 14–9 Troubleshooting

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 14–1 Mutual Inductance

Section 14–2 The Basic Transformer

Section 14–3 Step-Up and Step-Down Transformers

Section 14–4 Loading the Secondary

Section 14–5 Reflected Load

Section 14–6 Impedance Matching

Section 14–7 Transformer Ratings and Characteristics

Section 14–8 Tapped and Multiple-Winding Transformers

Section 14–9 Troubleshooting

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

15 RC Circuits

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Part 1: Series Circuits

Part 2: Parallel Circuits

Part 3: Series-Parallel Circuits

Part 4: Special Topics

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

Coverage Options

15–1 The Complex Number System

Part 1 Series Circuits

15–2 Sinusoidal Response of Series RC Circuits

15–3 Impedance of Series RC Circuits

15–4 Analysis of Series RC Circuits

Ohm’s Law

Phase Relationships of Current and Voltages

Variation of Impedance and Phase Angle with Frequency

The RC Lag Circuit

Phase Difference Between Input and Output

Magnitude of the Output Voltage

The RC Lead Circuit

Phase Difference Between Input and Output

Magnitude of the Output Voltage

Option 2 Note

Part 2 Parallel Circuits

15–5 Impedance and Admittance of Parallel RC Circuits

Conductance, Susceptance, and Admittance

15–6 Analysis of Parallel RC Circuits

Phase Relationships of Currents and Voltages

Conversion from Parallel to Series Form

Option 2 Note

Part 3 Series-Parallel Circuits

15–7 Analysis of Series-Parallel RC Circuits

Measurement of Ztot

Measurement of Phase Angle, θ

Option 2 Note

Part 4 Special Topics

15–8 Power in RC Circuits

Power Triangle for RC Circuits

Power Factor

Significance of Apparent Power

15–9 Basic Applications

The Phase Shift Oscillator

The RC Circuit as a Filter

Low-Pass Filter

High-Pass Filter

The Cutoff Frequency and the Bandwidth of a Filter

Coupling an AC Signal into a DC Bias Circuit

15–10 Troubleshooting

Option 2 Note

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

Complex Numbers

Series RC Circuits

Lag Circuit

Lead Circuit

Parallel RC Circuits

Power in RC Circuits

Applications

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 15–87

Refer to Figure 15–88

Refer to Figure 15–94

Refer to Figure 15–99

Refer to Figure 15–104

Problems

Section 15–1 The Complex Number System

Part 1: Series Circuits

Section 15–2 Sinusoidal Response of Series RC Circuits

Section 15–3 Impedance of Series RC Circuits

Section 15–4 Analysis of Series RC Circuits

Part 2: Parallel Circuits

Section 15–5 Impedance and Admittance of Parallel RC Circuits

Section 15–6 Analysis of Parallel RC Circuits

Part 3: Series-Parallel Circuits

Section 15–7 Analysis of Series-Parallel RC Circuits

Part 4: Special Topics

Section 15–8 Power in RC Circuits

Section 15–9 Basic Applications

Section 15–10 Troubleshooting

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 15–1 The Complex Number System

Section 15–2 Sinusoidal Response of Series RC Circuits

Section 15–3 Impedance of Series RC Circuits

Section 15–4 Analysis of Series RC Circuits

Section 15–5 Impedance and Admittance of Parallel RC Circuits

Section 15–6 Analysis of Parallel RC Circuits

Section 15–7 Analysis of Series-Parallel RC Circuits

Section 15–8 Power in RC Circuits

Section 15–9 Basic Applications

Section 15–10 Troubleshooting

Related Problems For Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

16 RL Circuits

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Part 1: Series Circuits

Part 2: Parallel Circuits

Part 3: Series-Parallel Circuits

Part 4: Special Topics

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

Coverage Options

Part 1 Series Circuits

16–1 Sinusoidal Response of Series RL Circuits

16–2 Impedance of Series RL Circuits

16–3 Analysis of Series RL Circuits

Ohm’s Law

Phase Relationships of Current and Voltages

Variation of Impedance and Phase Angle with Frequency

The RL Lead Circuit

Phase Difference Between Input and Output

Magnitude of the Output Voltage

The RL Lag Circuit

Phase Difference Between Input and Output

Magnitude of the Output Voltage

Option 2 Note

Part 2 Parallel Circuits

16–4 Impedance and Admittance of Parallel RL Circuits

Conductance, Susceptance, and Admittance

16–5 Analysis of Parallel RL Circuits

Phase Relationships of Currents and Voltages

Conversion from Parallel to Series Form

Option 2 Note

Part 3 Series-Parallel Circuits

16–6 Analysis of Series-Parallel RL Circuits

Option 2 Note

Part 4 Special Topics

16–7 Power in RL Circuits

The Power Triangle for RL Circuits

Significance of the Power Factor

Power Factor Correction

16–8 Basic Applications

The RL Circuit as a Filter

Low-Pass Filter

High-Pass Filter

The Switching Regulator

16–9 Troubleshooting

Other Troubleshooting Considerations

Option 2 Note

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

Series RL Circuits

Lead Circuit

Lag Circuit

Parallel RL Circuits

Power in RL Circuits

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 16–60

Refer to Figure 16–67

Refer to Figure 16–73

Refer to Figure 16–74

Refer to Figure 16–77

Problems

Part 1: Series Circuits

Section 16–1 Sinusoidal Response of Series RL Circuits

Section 16–2 Impedance of Series RL Circuits

Section 16–3 Analysis of Series RL Circuits

Part 2: Parallel Circuits

Section 16–4 Impedance and Admittance of Parallel RL Circuits

Section 16–5 Analysis of Parallel RL Circuits

Part 3: Series-Parallel Circuits

Section 16–6 Analysis of Series-Parallel RL Circuits

Part 4: Special Topics

Section 16–7 Power in RL Circuits

Section 16–8 Basic Applications

Section 16–9 Troubleshooting

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 16–1 Sinusoidal Response of Series RL Circuits

Section 16–2 Impedance of Series RL Circuits

Section 16–3 Analysis of Series RL Circuits

Section 16–4 Impedance and Admittance of Parallel RL Circuits

Section 16–5 Analysis of Parallel RL Circuits

Section 16–6 Analysis of Series-Parallel RL Circuits

Section 16–7 Power in RL Circuits

Section 16–8 Basic Applications

Section 16–9 Troubleshooting

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

17 RLC Circuits and Resonance

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Part 1: Series Circuits

Part 2: Parallel Circuits

Part 3: Series-Parallel Circuits

Part 4: Special Topics

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion WebSite

Coverage Options

Part 1 Series Circuits

17–1 Impedance of Series RLC Circuits

17–2 Analysis of Series RLC Circuits

17–3 Series Resonance

XL and XC Cancel at Resonance

Series Resonant Frequency

Current and Voltages in a Series RLC Circuit

Series RLC Impedance

The Phase Angle of a Series RLC Circuit

Option 2 Note

Part 2 Parallel Circuits

17–4 Impedance of Parallel RLC Circuits

Conductance, Susceptance, and Admittance

17–5 Analysis of Parallel RLC Circuits

Current Relationships

17–6 Parallel Resonance

Condition for Ideal Parallel Resonance

Parallel Resonant Frequency

Tank Circuit

Variation of the Impedance with Frequency

Current and Phase Angle at Resonance

Effect of Winding Resistance on the Parallel Resonant Frequency

Option 2 Note

Part 3 Series-Parallel Circuits

17–7 Analysis of Series-Parallel RLC Circuits

Conversion of Series-Parallel to Parallel

Parallel Resonant Conditions in a Nonideal Circuit

An External Load Resistance Affects a Tank Circuit

Option 2 Note

Part 4 Special Topics

17–8 Bandwidth of Resonant Circuits

Series Resonant Circuits

Parallel Resonant Circuits

Formula for Bandwidth

Half-Power Frequencies

Selectivity

Q Affects Bandwidth

17–9 Applications

Wave Trap

Tuned Amplifiers

Antenna Input to a Receiver

Audio Crossover Networks

Superheterodyne Receiver

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

Series RLC Circuits

Series Resonance

Parallel RLC Circuits

Parallel Resonance

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 17–67

Refer to Figure 17–70

Refer to Figure 17–71

Refer to Figure 17–73

Refer to Figure 17–86

Problems

Part 1: Series Circuits

Section 17–1 Impedance of Series RLC Circuits

Section 17–2 Analysis of Series RLC Circuits

Section 17–3 Series Resonance

Part 2: Parallel Circuits

Section 17–4 Impedance of Parallel RLC Circuits

Section 17–5 Analysis of Parallel RLC Circuits

Section 17–6 Parallel Resonance

Part 3: Series-Parallel Circuits

Section 17–7 Analysis of Series-Parallel RLC Circuits

Part 4: Special Topics

Section 17–8 Bandwidth of Resonant Circuits

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 17–1 Impedance of Series RLC Circuits

Section 17–2 Analysis of Series RLC Circuits

Section 17–3 Series Resonance

Section 17–4 Impedance of Parallel RLC Circuits

Section 17–5 Analysis of Parallel RLC Circuits

Section 17–6 Parallel Resonance

Section 17–7 Analysis of Series-Parallel RLC Circuits

Section 17–8 Bandwidth of Resonant Circuits

Section 17–9 Applications

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

18 Passive Filters

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

18–1 Low-Pass Filters

Decibels

RC Low-Pass Filter

Roll-Off of the Response Curve

RL Low-Pass Filter

Phase Shift in a Low-Pass Filter

18–2 High-Pass Filters

RC High-Pass Filter

RL High-Pass Filter

Phase Shift in a High-Pass Filter

18–3 Band-Pass Filters

Low-Pass/High-Pass Filter

Series Resonant Band-Pass Filter

Parallel Resonant Band-Pass Filter

18–4 Band-Stop Filters

Low-Pass/High-Pass Filter

Series Resonant Band-Stop Filter

Parallel Resonant Band-Stop Filter

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 18–40(a)

Refer to Figure 18–40(d)

Refer to Figure 18–42

Refer to Figure 18–43(a)

Refer to Figure 18–44

Problems

Section 18–1 Low-Pass Filters

Section 18–2 High-Pass Filters

Section 18–3 Band-Pass Filters

Section 18–4 Band-Stop Filters

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 18–1 Low-Pass Filters

Section 18–2 High-Pass Filters

Section 18–3 Band-Pass Filters

Section 18–4 Band-Stop Filters

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

19 Circuit Theorems in AC Analysis

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

19–1 The Superposition Theorem

19–2 Thevenin’s Theorem

Equivalency

Thevenin’s Equivalent Voltage (Vth)

Thevenin’s Equivalent Impedance (Zth)

Thevenin’s Equivalent Circuit

Summary of Thevenin’s Theorem

19–3 Norton’s Theorem

Norton’s Equivalent Current Source (In)

Norton’s Equivalent Impedance (Zn)

Summary of Norton’s Theorem

Norton/Thevenin Equivalency

19–4 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Summary

Key Terms

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 19–50

Refer to Figure 19–52

Refer to Figure 19–53

Refer to Figure 19–54

Refer to Figure 19–57

Problems

Section 19–1 The Superposition Theorem

Section 19–2 Thevenin’s Theorem

Section 19–3 Norton’s Theorem

Section 19–4 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 19–1 The Superposition Theorem

Section 19–2 Thevenin’s Theorem

Section 19–3 Norton’s Theorem

Section 19–4 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

20 Time Response of Reactive Circuits

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Application Activity Preview

Visit the Companion Website

20–1 The RC Integrator

Charging and Discharging of a Capacitor

Capacitor Voltage

20–2 Response of an RC Integrator to a Single Pulse

20–3 Response of RC Integrators to Repetitive Pulses

Steady-State Time Response

The Effect of an Increase in Time Constant

20–4 Response of an RC Differentiator to a Single Pulse

Pulse Response

Response to the Rising Edge of the Input Pulse

Response During Pulse When tW ≥ 5τ

Response to Falling Edge When tW ≥ 5τ

Response During Pulse When tW < 5τ

Response to Falling Edge When tW < 5τ

Summary of RC Differentiator Response to a Single Pulse

20–5 Response of RC Differentiators to Repetitive Pulses

Analysis of a Repetitive Waveform

20–6 Response of RL Integrators to Pulse Inputs

Response of the RL Integrator to a Single Pulse

20–7 Response of RL Differentiators to Pulse Inputs

Response of the RL Differentiator to a Single Pulse

20–8 Relationship of Time Response to Frequency Response

The Integrator

RC Integrator

RL Integrator

The Differentiator

RC Differentiator

RL Differentiator

Formulas Relating Time Response to Frequency Response

20–9 Troubleshooting

Open Capacitor

Leaky Capacitor

Shorted Capacitor

Open Resistor

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

Refer to Figure 20–60

Refer to Figure 20–63

Refer to Figure 20–66

Refer to Figure 20–68

Problems

Section 20–1 The RC Integrator

Section 20–2 Response of an RC Integrator to a Single Pulse

Section 20–3 Response of RC Integrators to Repetitive Pulses

Section 20–4 Response of an RC Differentiator to a Single Pulse

Section 20–5 Response of RC Differentiators to Repetitive Pulses

Section 20–6 Response of RL Integrators to Pulse Inputs

Section 20–7 Response of RL Differentiators to Pulse Inputs

Section 20–8 Relationship of Time Response to Frequency Response

Section 20–9 Troubleshooting

Multisim Troubleshooting and Analysis

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 20–1 The RC Integrator

Section 20–2 Response of an RC Integrator to a Single Pulse

Section 20–3 Response of RC Integrators to Repetitive Pulses

Section 20–4 Response of an RC Differentiator to a Single Pulse

Section 20–5 Response of RC Differentiators to Repetitive Pulses

Section 20–6 Response of RL Integrators to Pulse Inputs

Section 20–7 Response of RL Differentiators to Pulse Inputs

Section 20–8 Relationship of Time Response to Frequency Response

Section 20–9 Troubleshooting

Related Problems for Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Circuit Dynamics Quiz

21 Three-Phase Systems in Power Applications

Chapter Outline

Chapter Objectives

Key Terms

Visit the Companion WebSite

21–1 Generators in Power Applications

21–2 Types of Three-Phase Generators

The Y-Connected Generator

The Δ-Connected Generator

21–3 Three-Phase Source/Load Analysis

The Y-Y System

The Y-Δ System

The Δ-Y System

The Δ-Δ System

21–4 Three-Phase Power

Power Measurement

Three-Wattmeter Method

Two-Wattmeter Method

Summary

Key Terms

Formulas

Y Generator

Δ Generator

Y-Y System

Y-Δ System

Δ-to-Y System

Δ-Δ System

Three-Phase Power

Three-Wattmeter Method

Two-Wattmeter Method

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Problems

Section 21–1 Generators in Power Applications

Section 21–2 Types of Three-Phase Generators

Section 21–3 Three-Phase Source/Load Analysis

Section 21–4 Three-Phase Power

Answers

Section Checkups

Section 21–1 Generators in Power Applications

Section 21–2 Types of Three-Phase Generators

Section 21–3 Three-Phase Source/Load Analysis

Section 21–4 Three-Phase Power

Related Problems For Examples

True/False Quiz

Self-Test

Appendices

Appendix A Table of Standard Resistor Values

Appendix B Derivations

Appendix C Capacitor Label Coding

Appendix D NI Multisim for Circuit Simulation

Simulate, Prototype, and Test Circuits

Theory, Design, and Prototype

1. Investigate Theory

2. Design and Simulate

3. Prototype, Measure, and Compare

NI Multisim

Using Multisim with Principles of Electric Circuits

NI ELVIS

Using NI ELVIS with Principles of Electric Circuits

NI Multisim Circuit Files

NI Multisim Resources

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems

Glossary

Index

The late * Thomas L. Floyd *had a master’s degree in electrical engineering (SMU) and a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering (UF). He worked as a design engineer at Texas Instruments and senior engineer at Martin-Marietta (now Lockheed-Martin). In addition, he had five years’ experience teaching and serving as department head of the Electronics Technology program at Valencia Community College, Orlando, FL, as well as five years teaching electronics technology at Mayland Community College, Spruce Pine, NC.

Since 1975, Floyd had written textbooks in electronic technology, including Digital Fundamentals; Principles of Electric Circuits; Electronics Fundamentals; Electronic Devices; Electric Circuit Fundamentals; Digital Fundamentals: A Systems Approach; Digital Fundamentals with PLD Programming; Fundamentals of Analog Circuits: A Systems Approach; Science of Electronics: Digital, Analog Fundamentals; Basic Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits; DC/AC Fundamentals: A Systems Approach; and Renewable Energy Systems.

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