Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience 2nd Edition by Dale Purves, ISBN-13: 978-0878935734


Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience 2nd Edition by Dale Purves, ISBN-13: 978-0878935734

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  • Publisher: ‎ Sinauer Associates is an imprint of Oxford University Press; 2nd edition (November 1, 2012)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 601 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 0878935738
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0878935734

The new and rapidly evolving field of cognitive neuroscience brings together cognitive psychology and neuroscience, drawing conceptual and technical elements from both these traditional disciplines. This union has been motivated by the exciting possibility of better understanding complex human brain functions that have puzzled thinkers for centuries. The emergence of cognitive neuroscience as a discipline in its own right over the last two decades is thus an expression of what many see as the next logical step for both neuroscience and cognitive psychology, driven by powerful new methods for studying the human brain.

Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience, introduced in 2008, was written to inform readers at all levels about the growing canon of cognitive neuroscience, and to make clear the many challenges that remain to be solved. Now, in this Second Edition, the authors–all leaders in the field–offer what is in essence a completely new book:

*The 28 chapters of the original edition have been condensed and combined to 15 chapters for the new edition.

*The condensation makes the topics covered easier to assimilate, and better suited to presentation in a single-semester course.

*Each chapter has been updated to address the latest developments in the field, including expanded coverage of genetics, evolution, and neural development.

*Introductory Boxes in each chapter take up an especially interesting issue to better capture readers’ attention.

*An appendix reviews the major features of human neuroanatomy and basic aspects of neural signaling.

As before, this edition includes an extensive glossary of key terms.

Table of Contents:

1. Cognitive Neuroscience: Definitions, Themes, and Approaches



Natural philosophy and early psychology


Cognitive science


Cognitive Neuroscience: The Neurobiological Approach to Cognition

Methods: Convergence and Complementarity


Box 1A. Convergence through Meta-analysis

2. The Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience


Brain Perturbations That Elucidate Cognitive Functions

Perturbations imposed by stroke, trauma, or disease

Pharmacological perturbations

Perturbation by intracranial brain stimulation

Perturbation by extracranial brain stimulation


Measuring Neural Activity during Cognitive Processing

Direct electrophysiological recording from neurons

Electroencephalography (EEG)

Event-related potentials (ERPs)

Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (functional MRI or fMRI)

Using fMRI to analyze activation patterns within a brain area

Using fMRI to examine activity relationships between brain areas

Optical brain imaging

Assembling Evidence and Delineating Mechanisms

Associations and dissociations

Multimethodological approaches

Introductory box. Early Brain Mapping in Humans

Box 2A. An Introduction to Structural Brain Imaging Techniques

Box 2B. Imaging Structural Connections in the Brain

Box 2C. Neuroimaging Genomics

3. Sensory Systems and Perception: Vision


Visual Stimuli

The Initiation of Vision

Subcortical Visual Processing

Cortical Visual Processing

Other Key Characteristics of the Visual Cortex


Cortical magnification

Cortical modularity

Visual receptive fields

Visual Perception

Lightness and brightness



Distance and depth


Object recognition

Perceiving remembered images

Introductory box. Prosopagnosia

Box 3A. Synesthesia

Box 3B. Measuring Perception

Box 3C. The Inverse Problem

4. Sensory Systems and Perception: Auditory, Mechanical, and Chemical Senses


The Auditory System

Sound stimuli

The peripheral auditory system

The auditory cortices

The perception of sound

Perceiving the location of sound sources

The Mechanosensory Systems

The cutaneous/subcutaneous system

The pain system

The Chemosensory Modalities

The olfactory system

The taste system

Trigeminal chemosensation

Some Final Points about Sensory Systems

Coding and labeled lines

The malleability of sensory circuitry

Awareness of sensory stimuli

The representation of sensory percepts

Introductory box. The Remarkable Success of Cochlear Implants

Box 4A. Measuring Loudness

Box 4B. Music and Its Effects

Box 4C. Somatosensory Illusions

Box 4D. Phantom Limbs

5. Motor Systems: The Organization of Action


Motor Control Is Hierarchical

Anatomical organization of motor systems

Cortical Pathways for Motor Control

Organization of the primary motor cortex

Movement maps in the primary motor cortex

Coding Movements by the Activity of Neuronal Populations

Planning Movements

Selecting goals for action

Motivational control of goal selection

Sequential Movements and the Supplementary Motor Area

Sensory-Motor Coordination

Initiation of Movement by the Basal Ganglia

Basal Ganglia and Cognition

Error Correction and Motor Coordination by the Cerebellum

Cerebellar Contributions to Cognitive Behavior

Introductory box. Apraxia

Box 5A. Reflexes, Central Pattern Generators, and Rhythmic Behaviors

Box 5B. Motor Control of Facial Expressions

Box 5C. Motor Systems and Interval Timing

6. Attention and Its Effects on Stimulus Processing


The Concept of Attention

Global states, arousal, and attention

The selective nature of attention

Behavioral Studies of Attention Capacity and Selection

The level at which selection occurs

Endogenously versus exogenously driven selective attention

Neuroscience Approaches to Studying Attention

Studying the neural effects of attention on stimulus processing

Studying the control of attention in the brain

Neural Effects of Attention on Stimulus Processing: Auditory Spatial Attention

Electrophysiological studies of the effects of auditory spatial attention

Neuroimaging studies of the effects of auditory spatial attention

Animal studies of the effects of auditory spatial attention

The effects of auditory spatial attention on auditory feature processing

Neural Effects of Attention on Stimulus Processing: Visual Spatial Attention

Electrophysiological studies of the effects of visual spatial attention

Neuroimaging studies of the effects of visual spatial attention

Combining electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies of visual spatial attention

Animal studies of the effects of visual spatial attention

The effects of visual spatial attention on visual feature processing

Neural Effects of Attending to Nonspatial Stimulus Attributes

The neural effects of attention to nonspatial auditory features

The neural effects of attention to nonspatial visual features

The effects of visual attention to objects

Neural Effects of Attention across Sensory Modalities

Introductory box. The Cocktail Party Effect

Box 6A. The Attentional Blink and Late Attentional Selection

Box 6B. Attention-Related “Reentrant” Activity

7. The Control of Attention


Clinical Evidence for Brain Regions Involved in Attentional Control

Control of Voluntary Attention

Activation in frontal and parietal cortex during endogenous attentional tasks

Delineating the role of the frontoparietal network in the control of attention

Ascertaining the temporal flow of brain activations underlying attentional control

Single-neuron recordings in frontal and parietal cortex during attentional control

Preparatory activation of sensory cortices during attentional control

Control of Exogenously Induced Changes in Attention

Attentional shifts triggered by sudden stimulus onsets

Attentional reorienting activates a ventral frontoparietal system

Visual Search

Behavioral studies of visual search

Theoretical models of visual search

Neural processes underlying visual search

Attentional Control as a System of Interacting Brain Areas

Interactions between Components of the Attentional System

Generality of Attentional Control Systems

Attention, Levels of Arousal, and Consciousness

Sleep and wakefulness


Neural correlates of consciousness in normal subjects

Neural correlates of consciousness in pathological conditions

Introductory box. Hemispatial Neglect Syndrome

Box 7A. The Default-Mode Network

8. Memory: Varieties and Mechanisms


Memory Phases, Processes, Systems, and Tasks

Dissociating Memory Systems

Working memory versus declarative memory

Declarative versus nondeclarative memory

Nondeclarative Memory


Perceptual priming

Conceptual priming

Semantic priming

Repetition enhancement

Skill Learning

Motor skill learning

Perceptual skill learning

Cognitive skill learning


Cellular Mechanisms of Memory

Habituation and sensitization

Long-term potentiation and depression

Linking LTP to memory performance

Learning-related changes in synaptic morphology

Introductory box. The Case of H.M.

Box 8A. Investigating Declarative Memory in Non-Human Animals

Box 8B. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions beyond Declarative Memory

Box 8C. Connectionist Models

9. Declarative Memory


Basic Concepts and Assumptions

A taxonomy of declarative memory

A simple neurological model of encoding, storage, and retrieval

Using the model to explain the effects of brain damage

The Nature of Medial Temporal Lobe Representations

Theories of hippocampal memory function

Differences between medial temporal lobe subregions

Cortical Regions Storing Semantic and Episodic Memory Representations

The organization of semantic knowledge in the cortex

The reactivation of cortical regions for recent episodic memories

Contributions of the Prefrontal Cortex to Encoding and Retrieval

Functional neuroimaging of episodic encoding

Functional neuroimaging of episodic retrieval

Effects of frontal lobe lesions

Contributions of the Posterior Parietal Cortex to Encoding and Retrieval

The role of posterior parietal cortex during retrieval

The role of posterior parietal cortex during encoding

Memory Consolidation

Synaptic versus system consolidation

Theories of system consolidation in declarative memory

Consolidation, reactivation, and sleep

Introductory box. Developmental Amnesia

Box 9A. Organization of the Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System

Box 9B. Functional Neuroimaging Methods to Study Episodic Memory

Box 9C. ERP Studies of Episodic Retrieval

10. Emotion


What Is Emotion?

Psychological Classification of Emotions

Categorical theories

Dimensional theories

Component process theories

Early Neurobiological Theories of Emotion

The James-Lange feedback theory

The Cannon-Bard diencephalic theory

The Papez circuit and Klüver-Bucy syndrome

The limbic system theory and its challenges

Contemporary Approaches to Studying the Neurobiology of Emotion

Hemispheric-asymmetry hypotheses

Vertical integration models: Fear acquisition

Vertical integration models: Fear modification

Interoception and the somatic marker hypothesis

In search of categories of emotional experience

Interactions with Other Cognitive Functions

Emotional influences on perception and attention

Emotional influences on memory consolidation

Regulation of Emotion

Introductory box. The Neuroscience and Neuroethics of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Box 10A. Psychophysiology and the Brain-Body Link

Box 10B. Stress and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Adrenal Axis

11. Social Cognition


The Self



Perception of Social Cues Evident in the Face and Body

Face perception

Perception of biological motion

Interpersonal attention and action direction

Social Categorization

Perception of social category information

Stereotypes and automatic racial biases

Monitoring and controlling racial bias

Impression formation and trust

Understanding the Actions and Emotions of Others

Mirror neurons

Perspective taking and mental-state attribution

Theory of mind in children and apes

Empathy, sympathy, and prosocial behavior

Social Competition

Social rank and stress

Power motivation and dominance contests

Introductory box. Autism

Box 11A. Measuring Implicit and Explicit Racial Attitudes

Box 11B. Social Bonds and Kinship

12. Language



Producing speech

Comprehending speech

Interpreting speech sounds

Sentences, grammar, and syntax

The importance of context

Acquiring Speech and Language

Learning a vocabulary

The shaping of phonemes and phones

A critical period for language acquisition

Mechanisms of language learning

Effects of language deprivation

Theories of Language

Is there a “universal grammar”?

Connectionist theory

The Neural Bases of Language

Neural bases for producing speech and language

Neural bases for comprehending language

Additional evidence from neurosurgery

Contributions of the right hemisphere to language

Noninvasive Studies of Language Organization

Evidence that the neural basis of language is fundamentally symbolic

Genetic Determination of Language Functions

Is Human Language Unique?

The Origins of Human Language

Introductory box. Dyslexia

Box 12A. Representing Speech Sounds in Written Form

Box 12B. Language, Handedness, and Cerebral Dominance

Box 12C. Representing Number

Box 12D. Learned Vocal Communication in Non-human Species

13. Executive Functions


A Taxonomy of Executive Function

Prefrontal Cortex: A Key Contributor to Executive Function

Organization and connectivity of the prefrontal cortex

Consequences of damage to the prefrontal cortex

Establishing and Modifying Behavioral Rules

Initiating rules for behavior

Inhibiting rules for behavior

Inhibiting socially inappropriate behaviors

Shifting among rules for behavior

Relating rules to create higher-order models of the world

Hierarchical models for executive function

Control: Matching Behavior to Context

Conflict monitoring

Challenges to the conflict-monitoring model

Functional organization of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex

Working Memory: Maintaining Information and Rules over Time

Neural substrates of working memory

Introductory box. Environmental Dependency Syndrome

Box 13A. Comparative Anatomy of the Prefrontal Cortex

Box 13B. The Neurobiology of Intelligence

Box 13C. Reasoning

14. Decision Making


Decision Making: From Rational Choice to Behavioral Economics

Reward and Utility

Dopamine: Pleasure or motivation?

Reward prediction error

Responses to negative outcomes

Uncertainty: Risk, Ambiguity, and Delay

Risk and ambiguity

Delay: Discounting future rewards

Social Context

Social rewards

Social cooperation

Social punishment

Integration: Combining and Comparing Information to Reach a Decision

Perceptual decision making

Value-based decision making

Heuristics in Decision Making

Future Directions

Introductory box. Addiction to Gambling

Box 14A. Learning Values and Forming Habits

Box 14B. Modeling Simple Decisions

Box 14C. Neuromarketing

15. Evolution and Development of Brain and Cognition


Early Thinking about the Evolution and Development of Cognition

Early Brain Development

Neuronal differentiation and myelination

The development of neural connections

Linking Brain and Cognitive Development

Brain size and the evolution of cognition

Relative brain size and cerebral complexity

Evolution of Brain Development

Evolutionary Specializations of Brain and Behavior

Evolution and development of learning and memory

Evolution and development of quantitative cognition

Evolution and development of social cognition

Evolution and development of language

Introductory box. Savant Syndrome

Box 15A. Darwin and the Brain

Box 15B. Brain Differences in Modern Humans: Implications for Cognition

Box 15C. Evolution of Human Brain and Cognition Evident in the Fossil Record

APPENDIX. The Human Nervous System

Cellular Components of the Nervous System

Nerve Cells and Their Signaling Functions

Functional Organization of the Human Nervous System

Neural circuits

Neural systems

Structural Organization of the Human Nervous System

Major Subdivisions of the Central Nervous System

The brainstem

The spinal cord

Surface features of the brain

Internal features of the brain

The ventricular system

The Brain’s Blood Supply

Box A1. Intracellular Recording from Nerve Cells

Box A2. Organization of the Cerebral Cortex

Box A3. Anatomical Terminology


Illustration Credits


Dale Purves is Director of the Neuroscience and Behavioural Disorders program at Duke’s Graduate Medical School and Executive Director of the Neuroscience Research Partnership at A*STAR (both located in Singapore).

Kevin S. LaBar is Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at the Duke University School of Medicine.

Michael L. Platt is Professor of Neurobiology at the Duke University School of Medicine and Director of the Duke Institute for Brain Science.

Marty Woldorff is Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at the Duke University School of Medicine.

Roberto Cabeza is Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience at Duke University.

Scott A. Huettel is Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience and Director of the Duke Center for Interdisciplinary Decision Science.

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