**Physics: Principles with Applications 7th Edition by Douglas Giancoli, ISBN-13: 978-0321625922**

[PDF eBook eTextbook]

- Publisher: Pearson; 7th edition (June 6, 2013)
- Language: English
- 1088 pages
- ISBN-10: 0321625927
- ISBN-13: 978-0321625922

**Table of Contents:**

Physics Principles with Applications

Contents

Applications to Biology and Medicine (Selected)

Applications to Other Fields and Everyday Life (Selected)

Student Supplements

Preface

What’s New?

See the World through Eyes that Know Physics

About the Author

To Students

Chapter 1 Introduction, Measurement, Estimating

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

1–1 The Nature of Science

1–2 Physics and its Relation to Other Fields

1–3 Models, Theories, and Laws

1–4 Measurement and Uncertainty; Significant Figures

Uncertainty

Conceptual Example 1–1 Is the diamond yours?

Response

Significant Figures

Exercise A

Exercise B

Conceptual Example 1–2 Significant figures.

Response

Note

Scientific Notation

Exercise C

*Percent Uncertainty vs. Significant Figures

Approximations

Accuracy vs. Precision

1–5 Units, Standards, and the SI System

Length

Time

Mass

Unit Prefixes

Systems of Units

*Base vs. Derived Quantities

1–6 Converting Units

Example 1–3 The 8000-m peaks.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 1–4 Apartment area.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 1–5 Speeds.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise D

Exercise E

1–7 Order of Magnitude: Rapid Estimating

Example 1–6 Estimate Volume of a lake.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 1–7 Estimate Thickness of a sheet of paper.

Approach

Solution

Example 1–8 Estimate Height by triangulation.

Approach

Solution

A Harder Example—But Powerful

Example 1–9 Estimate Estimating the radius of Earth.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise F

*1–8 Dimensions and Dimensional Analysis

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

1–4 Measurement, Uncertainty, Significant Figures

1–5 and 1–6 Units, Standards, SI, Converting Units

1–7 Order-of-Magnitude Estimating

*1–8 Dimensions

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

2–1 Reference Frames and Displacement

Exercise A

2–2 Average Velocity

Example 2–1 Runner’s average velocity.

Approach

Solution

Example 2–2 Distance a cyclist travels.

Approach

Solution

Example 2–3 Car changes speed.

Approach

Solution

Note

2–3 Instantaneous Velocity

Exercise B

2–4 Acceleration

Example 2–4 Average acceleration.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 2–5 Velocity and acceleration.

Response

Example 2–6 Car slowing down.

Approach

Solution

Deceleration

Exercise C

2–5 Motion at Constant Acceleration

Example 2–7 Runway design.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise D

2–6 Solving Problems

Example 2–8 Acceleration of a car.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 2–9 Estimate Braking distances.

Approach

Solution

Note

2–7 Freely Falling Objects

Exercise E

Example 2–10 Falling from a tower.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 2–11 Thrown down from a tower.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 2–12 Ball thrown upward.

Approach

Solution

Example 2–13 Ball thrown upward, II.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 2–14 Two possible misconceptions.

Response

Example 2–15 Ball thrown upward, III.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise F

Additional Example—Using the Quadratic Formula

Example 2–16 Ball thrown upward at edge of cliff.

Approach

Solution

2–8 Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion

Velocity as Slope

Slope and Acceleration

Conceptual Example 2–17 Analyzing with graphs.

Response

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

2–1 to 2–3 Speed and Velocity

2–4 Acceleration

2–5 and 2–6 Motion at Constant Acceleration

2–7 Freely Falling Objects (neglect air resistance)

2–8 Graphical Analysis

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

3–1 Vectors and Scalars

3–2 Addition of Vectors–-Graphical Methods

Conceptual Example 3–1 Range of vector lengths.

Response

Exercise A

3–3 Subtraction of Vectors, and Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar

Exercise B

3–4 Adding Vectors by Components

Components

Adding Vectors

Example 3–2 Mail carrier’s displacement.

Approach

Solution

Note

Adding Vector

Example 3–3 Three short trips.

Approach

Solution

3–5 Projectile Motion

Exercise C

Exercise D

Conceptual Example 3–4 Where does the apple land?

Response

Exercise E

3–6 Solving Projectile Motion Problems

Projectile Motion

Example 3–5 Driving off a cliff.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 3–6 A kicked football.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise F

Conceptual Example 3–7 The wrong strategy.

Response

Level Horizontal Range

Example 3–8 Range of a cannon ball.

Approach

Solution

Example 3–9 A punt.

Approach

Solution

*3–7 Projectile Motion Is Parabolic

3–8 Relative Velocity

Example 3–10 Heading upstream.

Approach

Solution

Example 3–11 Heading across the river.

Approach

Solution

Note

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

3–2 to 3–4 Vector Addition

3–5 and 3–6 Projectile Motion (neglect air resistance)

3–8 Relative Velocity

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

4–1 Force

4–2 Newton’s First Law of Motion

Conceptual Example 4–1 Newton’s first law.

Response

Inertial Reference Frames

4–3 Mass

4–4 Newton’s Second Law of Motion

Example 4–2 Estimate Force to accelerate a fast car.

Approach

Solution

Example 4–3 Force to stop a car.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise A

4–5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion

Conceptual Example 4–4 What exerts the force to move a car?

Response

Conceptual Example 4–5 Third law clarification.

Response

Exercise B

Exercise C

Exercise D

4–6 Weight—the Force of Gravity; and the Normal Force

Exercise E

Example 4–6 Weight, normal force, and a box.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 4–7 Accelerating the box.

Approach

Solution

Example 4–8 Apparent weight loss.

Approach

Solution

Note

4–7 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws: Free-Body Diagrams

Example 4–9 Adding force vectors.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 4–10 The hockey puck.

Response

Newton’s Laws; Free-Body Diagrams

Example 4–11 Pulling the mystery box.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise F

Tension in a Flexible Cord

Example4–12 Two boxes connected by a cord.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 4–13 Elevator and counterweight (Atwood machine).

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 4–14 The advantage of a pulley.

Response

Note

Example 4–15 Accelerometer.

Approach

Solution

Note

4–8 Problems Involving Friction, Inclines

Friction

Example 4–16 Friction: static and kinetic.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 4–17 A box against a wall.

Response

Exercise G

Example 4–18 Pulling against friction.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 4–19 To push or to pull a sled?

Response

Example 4–20 Two boxes and a pulley.

Approach

Solution

Note

Inclines

Exercise H

Example 4–21 The skier.

Approach

Solution

Note

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

4–4to4–6 Newton’s Laws, Gravitational Force, Normal Force [Assume no friction.]

4–7 Newton’s Laws and Vectors [Ignore friction.]

4–8 Newton’s Laws with Friction, Inclines

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 5 Circular Motion; Gravitation

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

5–1 Kinematics of Uniform Circular Motion

Example 5–1 Acceleration of a revolving ball.

Approach

Solution

Exercise A

Example 5–2 Moon’s centripetal acceleration.

Approach

Solution

Note

5–2 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion

Exercise B

Example 5–3 Estimate Force on revolving ball (horizontal).

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 5–4 Revolving ball (vertical circle).

Approach

Solution

Exercise C

Conceptual Example 5–5 Tetherball.

Response

Uniform Circular Motion

5–3 Highway Curves: Banked and Unbanked

Example 5–6 Skidding on a curve.

Approach

Solution

Exercise D

Example 5–7 Banking angle.

Approach

Solution

*5–4 Nonuniform Circular Motion

Example 5–8 Two components of acceleration.

Approach

Solution

Note

5–5 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation

Example 5–9 Estimate Can you attract another person gravitationally?

Approach

Solution

Example 5–10 Spacecraft at 2rE.

Approach

Solution

5–6 Gravity Near the Earth’s Surface

Example 5–11 Estimate Gravity on Everest.

Approach

Solution

Exercise E

5–7 Satellites and “Weightlessness”

Satellite Motion

Example 5–12 Geosynchronous satellite.

Approach

Solution

Weightlessness

Exercise F

5–8 Planets, Kepler’s Laws, and Newton’s Synthesis

Kepler’s Laws

Example 5–13 Where is Mars?

Approach

Solution

Kepler’s Third Law Derived, Sun’s Mass, Perturbations

Example 5–14 The Sun’s mass determined.

Approach

Solution

Other Centers for Kepler’s Laws

Distant Planetary Systems

Newton’s Synthesis

Sun/Earth Reference Frames

5–9 Moon Rises an Hour Later Each Day

5–10 Types of Forces in Nature

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

5–1 to 5–3 Uniform Circular Motion

*5–4 Nonuniform Circular Motion

5–5 and 5–6 Law of Universal Gravitation

5–7 Satellites and Weightlessness

5–8 Kepler’s Laws

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 6 Work and Energy

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

6–1 Work Done by a Constant Force

Example 6–1 Work done on a crate.

Approach

Solution

Exercise A

Work

Example 6–2 Work on a backpack.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Conceptual Example 6–3 Does the Earth do work on the Moon?

Response

*6–2 Work Done by a Varying Force

6–3 Kinetic Energy, and the Work-Energy Principle

Example 6–4 Estimate Work on a car, to increase its kinetic energy.

Approach

Solution

Exercise B

Conceptual Example 6–5 Work to stop a car.

Response

Exercise C

Exercise D

6–4 Potential Energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

Example 6–6 Potential energy changes for a roller coaster.

Approach

Solution

Note

Potential Energy Defined in General

Potential Energy of Elastic Spring

Potential Energy as Stored Energy

6–5 Conservative and Nonconservative Forces

Exercise E

Work-Energy Extended

6–6 Mechanical Energy and Its Conservation

6–7 Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Example 6–7 Falling rock.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 6–8 Roller-coaster car speed using energy conservation.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 6–9 Speeds on two water slides.

Response

Example 6–10 Toy dart gun.

Approach

Solution

Example 6–11 Two kinds of potential energy.

Approach

Solution

6–8 Other Forms of Energy and Energy Transformations; The Law of Conservation of Energy

6–9 Energy Conservation with Dissipative Forces: Solving Problems

Exercise F

Work-Energy versus Energy Conservation

Conservation of Energy

Example 6–12 Estimate Friction on the roller-coaster car.

Approach

Solution

Note

6–10 Power

Example 6–13 Stair-climbing power.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 6–14 Power needs of a car.

Approach

Solution

Note

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

6–1 Work, Constant Force

*6–2 Work, Varying Force

6–3 Kinetic Energy; Work-Energy Principle

6–4 and 6–5 Potential Energy

6–6 and 6–7 Conservation of Mechanical Energy

6–8 and 6–9 Law of Conservation of Energy

6–10 Power

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 7 Linear Momentum

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

7–1 Momentum and Its Relation to Force

Exercise A

Example 7–1 Estimate Force of a tennis serve.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Example 7–2 Washing a car: momentum change and force.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise B

7–2 Conservation of Momentum

Example 7–3 Railroad cars collide: momentum conserved.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Exercise C

Exercise D

Conceptual Example 7–4 Falling on or off a sled.

Response

Example 7–5 Rifle recoil.

Approach

Solution

Exercise E

7–3 Collisions and Impulse

Exercise F

Example 7–6 Estimate Karate blow.

Approach

Solution

7–4 Conservation of Energy and Momentum in Collisions

7–5 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension

Example 7–7 Equal masses.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 7–8 A nuclear collision.

Approach

Solution

Note

7–6 Inelastic Collisions

Example 7–9 Ballistic pendulum.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 7–10 Railroad cars again.

Approach

Solution

*7–7 Collisions in Two Dimensions

Example 7–11 Billiard ball collision in 2-D.

Approach

Solution

Momentum Conservation and Collisions

7–8 Center of Mass (CM)

Example 7–12 CM of three guys on a raft.

Approach

Solution

Exercise G

*7–9 CM for the Human Body

Example 7–13 A leg’s CM.

Approach

Solution

Note

*7–10 CM and Translational Motion

Conceptual Example 7–14 A two-stage rocket.

Response

Note

Exercise H

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

7–1 and 7–2 Momentum and Its Conservation

7–3 Collisions and Impulse

7–4 and 7–5 Elastic Collisions

7–6 Inelastic Collisions

*7–7 Collisions in Two Dimensions

7–8 Center of Mass (CM)

*7–9 CM for the Human Body

*7–10 CM and Translational Motion

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 8 Rotational Motion

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

8–1 Angular Quantities

Example 8–1 Bike wheel.

Approach

Solution

Example 8–2 Birds of prey—in radians.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 8–3 Is the lion faster than the horse?

Response

Example 8–4 Angular and linear velocities.

Approach

Solution

Example 8–5 Angular and linear accelerations.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Exercise A

8–2 Constant Angular Acceleration

Example 8–6 Centrifuge acceleration.

Approach

Solution

Note

8–3 Rolling Motion (Without Slipping)

Example 8–7 Bicycle.

Approach

Solution

Note

8–4 Torque

Example 8–8 Biceps torque.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise B

*Forces that Act to Tilt the Axis

8–5 Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia

Example 8–9 Two weights on a bar: different axis, different I.

Approach

Solution

Note

8–6 Solving Problems in Rotational Dynamics

Rotational Motion

Example 8–10 A heavy pulley.

Approach

Solution

Additional Example—a bit more challenging

Example 8–11 Pulley and bucket.

Approach

Solution

Note

8–7 Rotational Kinetic Energy

Example 8–12 Sphere rolling down an incline.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 8–13 Which is fastest?

Response

Note

Exercise C

Work Done by Torque

8–8 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation

Exercise D

Example 8–14 Clutch.

Approach

Solution

Example 8–15 Estimate Neutron star.

Approach

Solution

*8–9 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities

Conceptual Example 8–16 Spinning bicycle wheel.

Response

Exercise E

Exercise F

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

8–1 Angular Quantities

8–2 and 8–3 Constant Angular Acceleration; Rolling

8–4 Torque

8–5 and 8–6 Rotational Dynamics

8–7 Rotational Kinetic Energy

8–8 Angular Momentum

*8–9 Angular Quantities as Vectors

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 9 Static Equilibrium; Elasticity and Fracture

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

9–1 The Conditions for Equilibrium

Example 9–1 Straightening teeth.

Approach

Solution

Note

The First Condition for Equilibrium

Example 9–2 Chandelier cord tension.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise A

The Second Condition for Equilibrium

Conceptual Example 9–3 A lever.

Response

Exercise B

9–2 Solving Statics Problems

Statics

Example 9–4 Balancing a seesaw.

Approach

Solution

Exercise C

Example 9–5 Forces on a beam and supports.

Approach

Solution

Exercise D

Example 9–6 Hinged beam and cable.

Approach

Solution

Note

*A More Difficult Example—The Ladder

Example 9–7 Ladder.

Approach

Solution

Note

9–3 Applications to Muscles and Joints

Example 9–8 Force exerted by biceps muscle.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Example 9–9 Forces on your back.

Approach

Solution

Note

9–4 Stability and Balance

9–5 Elasticity; Stress and Strain

Elasticity and Hooke’s Law

Young’s Modulus

Example 9–10 Tension in piano wire.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise E

Stress and Strain

Tension, Compression, and Shear Stress

Volume Change—Bulk Modulus

9–6 Fracture

Example 9–11 Estimate Breaking the piano wire.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 9–12 A tragic substitution.

Response

*9–7 Spanning a Space: Arches and Domes

Example 9–13 A modem dome.

Approach

Solution

Note

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

9–1 and 9–2 Equilibrium

9–3 Muscles and Joints

9–4 Stability and Balance

9–5 Elasticity; Stress and Strain

9–6 Fracture

*9–7 Arches and Domes

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 10 Fluids

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

10–1 Phases of Matter

10–2 Density and Specific Gravity

Example 10–1 Mass, given volume and density.

Approach

Solution

10–3 Pressure in Fluids

Example 10–2 Calculating pressure.

Approach

Solution

Exercise A

Example 10–3 Pressure at a faucet.

Approach

Solution

NOTE

Exercise B

10–4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure

Atmospheric Pressure

Conceptual Example 10–4 Finger holds water in a straw.

Response

Gauge Pressure

10–5 Pascal’s Principle

10–6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer

Conceptual Example 10–5 Suction.

RESPONSE

10–7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle

Conceptual Example 10–6 Two pails of water.

Response

Example 10–7 Recovering a submerged statue.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 10–8 Archimedes: Is the crown gold?

Approach

Solution

Example 10–9 Hydrometer calibration.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise C

Exercise D

Example 10–10 Helium balloon.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 10–11 Throwing a rock overboard.

Response

Exercise E

10–8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity

Example 10–12 Estimate Blood flow.

Approach

Solution

Example 10–13 Heating duct to a room.

Approach

Solution

Note

10–9 Bernoulli’s Equation

Exercise F

Example 10–14 Flow and pressure in a hot-water heating system.

Approach

Solution

Note

10–10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs, Blood Flow

Exercise G

Airplane Wings and Dynamic Lift

Sailboats

Baseball Curve

Lack of Blood to the Brain—TIA

Other Applications

*10–11 Viscosity

*10–12 Flow in Tubes: Poiseuille’s Equation, Blood Flow

*10–13 Surface Tension and Capillarity

Example 10–15 Estimate Insect walks on water.

Approach

Solution

Note

*Capillarity

*10–14 Pumps, and the Heart

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

10–2 Density and Specific Gravity

10–3 to 10–6 Pressure; Pascal’s Principle

10–7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle

10–8 to 10–10 Fluid Flow, Bernoulli’s Equation

*10–11 Viscosity

*10–12 Flow in Tubes; Poiseuille’s Equation

*10–13 Surface Tension and Capillarity

*10–14 Pumps; the Heart

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 11 Oscillations and Waves

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

11–1 Simple Harmonic Motion—Spring Oscillations

Exercise A

Exercise B

Example 11–1 Car springs.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 11–2 Is the motion simple harmonic?

Response

11–2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion

Conceptual Example 11–3 Doubling the amplitude.

Response

Exercise C

Example 11–4 Spring calculations.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 11–5 Energy calculations.

Approach

Solution

11–3 The Period and Sinusoidal Nature of SHM

Exercise D

Example 11–6 Estimate Spider web.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 11–7 Estimate A vibrating floor.

Approach

Solution

Note

Period and Frequency—Derivation

Position as a Function of Time

Example 11–8 Starting with x = A cos ωt.

Approach

Solution

Sinusoidal Motion

*Velocity and Acceleration as Functions of Time

11–4 The Simple Pendulum

Exercise E

Exercise F

Example 11–9 Estimate Measuring g.

Approach

Solution

11–5 Damped Harmonic Motion

11–6 Forced Oscillations; Resonance

11–7 Wave Motion

Conceptual Example 11–10 Wave vs. particle velocity.

Response

Exercise G

Exercise H

11–8 Types of Waves and Their Speeds: Transverse and Longitudinal

Speed of Transverse Waves

Example 11–11 Wave along a wire.

Approach

Solution

Note

Speed of Longitudinal Waves

Example 11–12 Echolocation.

Approach

Solution

Note

Other Waves

11–9 Energy Transported by Waves

Example 11–13 Earthquake intensity.

Approach

Solution

Note

Intensity Related to Amplitude and Frequency

11–10 Reflection and Transmission of Waves

11–11 Interference; Principle of Superposition

11–12 Standing Waves; Resonance

Example 11–14 Piano string.

Approach

Solution

Note

*11–13 Refraction†

*11–14 Diffraction

Conceptual Example 11–15 Cell phones.

Response

*11–15 Mathematical Representation of a Traveling Wave

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

11–1 to 11–3 Simple Harmonic Motion

11–4 Simple Pendulum

11–7 and 11–8 Waves

11–9 Energy Transported by Waves

11–11 Interference

11–12 Standing Waves; Resonance

*11–13 Refraction

*11–14 Diffraction

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 12 Sound

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

12–1 Characteristics of Sound

Conceptual Example 12–1 Distance from a lightning strike.

Response

Example 12–2 Autofocusing with sound waves.

Approach

Solution

Note

12–2 Intensity of Sound: Decibels

Sound Level

Example 12–3 Sound intensity on the street.

Approach

Solution

Example 12–4 Loudspeaker response.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise A

Conceptual Example 12–5 Trumpet players.

Response

Exercise B

Example 12–6 Airplane roar.

Approach

Solution

Note

Intensity Related to Amplitude

Example 12–7 How tiny the displacement is.

Approach

Solution

Note

*12–3 The Ear and Its Response; Loudness

*The Ear’s Response

12–4 Sources of Sound: Vibrating Strings and Air Columns

Stringed Instruments

Example 12–8 Piano strings.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise C

Example 12–9 Frequencies and wavelengths in the violin.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise D

Wind Instruments

Example 12–10 Organ pipes.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 12–11 Flute.

Approach

Solution

Exercise E

Example 12–12 Estimate Wind noise frequencies.

Approach

Solution

Note

*12–5 Quality of Sound, and Noise; Superposition

12–6 Interference of Sound Waves; Beats

Interference in Space

Example 12–13 Loudspeakers’ interference.

Approach

Solution

Note

Beats—Interference in Time

Example 12–14 Beats.

Approach

Solution

12–7 Doppler Effect

Example 12–15 A moving siren.

Approach

Solution

Exercise F

Example 12–16 Two Doppler shifts.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise G

Doppler Effect for Light

*12–8 Shock Waves and the Sonic Boom

*12–9 Applications: Sonar, Ultrasound, and Medical Imaging

* Sonar

* Ultrasound Medical Imaging

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

12–1 Characteristics of Sound

12–2 Intensity of Sound; Decibels

*12–3 Loudness

12–4 Sources of Sound: Strings and Air Columns

*12–5 Quality of Sound, Superposition

12–6 Interference; Beats

12–7 Doppler Effect

*12–8 Shockwaves; Sonic Boom

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 13 Temperature and Kinetic Theory

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

13–1 Atomic Theory of Matter

Example 13–1 Estimate Distance between atoms.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

13–2 Temperature and Thermometers

Temperature Scales

Example 13–2 Taking your temperature.

Approach

Solution

* Standard Temperature Scale

13–3 Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

*The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

13–4 Thermal Expansion

Linear Expansion

Example 13–3 Bridge expansion.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 13–4 Do holes expand or contract?

Response

Example 13–5 Ring on a rod.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 13–6 Opening a tight jar lid.

Response

Volume Expansion

Example 13–7 Gas tank in the Sun.

Approach

Solution

Anomalous Behavior of Water Below 4°C

* Thermal Stresses

13–5 The Gas Laws and Absolute Temperature

Conceptual Example 13–8 Why you should not put a closed glass jar into a campfire.

Response

13–6 The Ideal Gas Law

Exercise A

Exercise B

13–7 Problem Solving with the Ideal Gas Law

Example 13–9 Volume of one mole at STP.

Approach

Solution

Exercise C

Example 13–10 Helium balloon.

Approach

Solution

Example 13–11 Estimate Mass of air in a room.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise D

Example 13–12 Check tires cold.

Approach

Solution

Note

13–8 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules: Avogadro’s Number

Example 13–13 Hydrogen atom mass.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 13–14 Estimate How many molecules in one breath?

Approach

Solution

13–9 Kinetic Theory and the Molecular Interpretation of Temperature

Example 13–15 Molecular kinetic energy.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise E

Example 13–16 Speeds of air molecules.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise F

* Kinetic Energy Near Absolute Zero

13–10 Distribution of Molecular Speeds

13–11 Real Gases and Changes of Phase

13–12 Vapor Pressure and Humidity

Evaporation

Vapor Pressure

Boiling

Partial Pressure and Humidity

Example 13–17 Relative humidity.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 13–18 Dryness in winter.

Response

*13–13 Diffusion

Example 13–19 Estimate Diffusion of ammonia in air.

Approach

Solution

Note

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

13–1 Atomic Theory

13–2 Temperature and Thermometers

13–4 Thermal Expansion

13–5 Gas Laws; Absolute Temperature

13–6 and 13–7 Ideal Gas Law

13–8 Ideal Gas Law in Terms of Molecules; Avogadro’s Number

13–9 Molecular Interpretation of Temperature

13–11 Real Gases; Phase Changes

13–12 Vapor Pressure and Humidity

*13–13 Diffusion

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 14 Heat

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

14–1 Heat as Energy Transfer

Example 14–1 Estimate Working off the extra Calories.

Approach

Solution

Note

14–2 Internal Energy

Distinguishing Temperature, Heat, and Internal Energy

Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas

14–3 Specific Heat

Example 14–2 How heat transferred depends on specific heat.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 14–3 A very hot frying pan.

Response

Exercise A

* Specific Heats for Gases

14–4 Calorimetry—Solving Problems

Example 14–4 The cup cools the tea.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Example 14–4′ Alternate Solution, ∑Q = 0.

Approach

Solution

Example 14–5 Unknown specific heat determined by calorimetry.

Approach

Solution

Note

Bomb Calorimeter

14–5 Latent Heat

Exercise B

Example 14–6 Making ice.

Approach

Solution

Exercise C

Example 14–7 Estimate Will all the ice melt?

Approach

Solution

Exercise D

Calorimetry

Evaporation

Kinetic Theory of Latent Heats

14–6 Heat Transfer: Conduction

Example 14–8 Heat loss through windows.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise E

*R-values for Building Materials

14–7 Heat Transfer: Convection

14–8 Heat Transfer: Radiation

Example 14–9 Estimate Cooling by radiation.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Example 14–10 Estimate Two teapots.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 14–11 Estimate Getting a tan—energy absorption.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 14–12 Estimate Star radius.

Approach

Solution

Exercise F

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

14–1 Heat as Energy Transfer

14–3 and 14–4 Specific Heat; Calorimetry

14–5 Latent Heat

14–6 to 14–8 Conduction, Convection, Radiation

General Problems

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Chapter 15 The Laws of Thermodynamics

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

15–1 The First Law of Thermodynamics

Example 15–1 Using the first law.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise A

*The First Law of Thermodynamics Extended

Example 15–2 Kinetic energy transformed to thermal energy.

Approach

Solution

Note

15–2 Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law

Isothermal Processes (ΔT = 0)

Adiabatic Processes (Q = 0)

Isobaric and Isovolumetric Processes

Work Done in Volume Changes

Conceptual Example 15–3 Work in isothermal and adiabatic processes.

Response

Exercise B

Example 15–4 First law in isobaric and isovolumetric processes.

Approach

Solution

Exercise C

Example 15–5 Work done in an engine.

Approach

Solution

Example 15–6 ΔU for boiling water to steam.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

*15–3 Human Metabolism and the First Law

Example 15–7 Energy transformation in the body.

Approach

Solution

Note

15–4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics—Introduction

15–5 Heat Engines

Steam Engine and Internal Combustion Engine

*Why a ΔT Is Needed to Drive a Heat Engine

Efficiency

Example 15–8 Car efficiency.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Carnot Engine

Example 15–9 Steam engine efficiency.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 15–10 A phony claim?

Approach

Solution

Exercise D

Exercise E

15–6 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps

Example 15–11 Making ice.

Approach

Solution

Example 15–12 Heat pump.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise F

*SEER Rating

15–7 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Example 15–13 Entropy change in melting.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 15–14 Estimate Entropy change when water samples are mixed.

Approach

Solution

15–8 Order to Disorder

Biological Development

“Time’s Arrow”

15–9 Unavailability of Energy; Heat Death

*15–10 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law

Exercise G

*15–11 Thermal Pollution, Global Warming, and Energy Resources

Thermodynamics

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

15–1 and 15–2 First Law of Thermodynamics

*15–3 Human Metabolism

15–5 Heat Engines

15–6 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, Heat Pumps

15–7 Entropy

*15–10 Statistical Interpretation

*15–11 Energy Resources

General Problems

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Chapter 16 Electric Charge and Electric Field

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

16–1 Static Electricity; Electric Charge and Its Conservation

16–2 Electric Charge in the Atom

16–3 Insulators and Conductors

16–4 Induced Charge; the Electroscope

16–5 Coulomb’s Law

Exercise A

Example 16–1 Electric force on electron by proton.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 16–2 Which charge exerts the greater force?

Response

Note

Exercise B

16–6 Solving Problems Involving Coulomb’s Law and Vectors

Vector Addition Review

Adding Electric Forces; Principle of Superposition

Example 16–3 Three charges in a line.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise C

Example 16–4 Electric force using vector components.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 16-5 Make the force on Q3 zero.

Response

Exercise D

Exercise E

16–7 The Electric Field

Example 16–6 Photocopy machine.

Approach

Solution

Example 16–7 Electric field of a single point charge.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise F

Example 16–8 E→ at a point between two charges.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise G

Example 16–9 E→ above two point charges.

Approach

Solution

Electrostatics: Electric Forces and Electric Fields

Example 16–10 E→ equidistant above two point charges.

Approach

Solution

16–8 Electric Field Lines

Gravitational Field

16–9 Electric Fields and Conductors

Conceptual Example 16–11 Shielding, and safety in a storm.

Response

*16–10 Electric Forces in Molecular Biology: DNA Structure and Replication

*16–11 Photocopy Machines and Computer Printers Use Electrostatics

*16–12 Gauss’s Law

Example 16–12 Charged spherical conducting shell.

Approach

Solution

Example 16–13 E near any conducting surface.

Approach

Solution

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

16–5 and 16–6 Coulomb’s Law

16–7 and 16–8 Electric Field, Field Lines

*16–10 DNA

*16–12 Gauss’s Law

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 17 Electric Potential

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

17–1 Electric Potential Energy and Potential Difference

Electric Potential Energy

Electric Potential and Potential Difference

Conceptual Example 17–1 A negative charge.

Response

Note

Example 17–2 Electron in TV tube.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise A

17–2 Relation between Electric Potential and Electric Field

Example 17–3 Electric field obtained from voltage.

Approach

Solution

Note

*General Relation between E→ and V

Breakdown Voltage

17–3 Equipotential Lines and Surfaces

17–4 The Electron Volt, a Unit of Energy

Exercise B

17–5 Electric Potential Due to Point Charges

Example 17–4 Potential due to a positive or a negative charge.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 17–5 Work required to bring two positive charges close together.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise C

Example 17–6 Potential above two charges.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 17–7 Potential energies.

Response

Exercise D

*17–6 Potential Due to Electric Dipole; Dipole Moment

17–7 Capacitance

Exercise E

Example 17–8 Capacitor calculations.

Approach

Solution

Note

*Derivation of Capacitance for Parallel-Plate Capacitor

17–8 Dielectrics

Conceptual Example 17–9 Inserting a dielectric at constant V.

Response

Exercise F

Conceptual Example 17–10 Inserting a dielectric into an isolated capacitor.

Response

*Molecular Description of Dielectrics

17–9 Storage of Electric Energy

Example 17–11 Energy stored in a capacitor.

Approach

Solution

Exercise G

Conceptual Example 17–12 Capacitor plate separation increased.

Response

Note

Health Effects

17–10 Digital; Binary Numbers; Signal Voltage

*Noise

*17–11 TV and Computer Monitors: CRTs, Flat Screens

*CRT

*Flat Screens and Addressing Pixels

*Active Matrix (advanced)

*Oscilloscopes

*17–12 Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

17–1 to 17–4 Electric Potential

17–5 Potential Due to Point Charges

*17–6 Electric Dipoles

17–7 Capacitance

17–8 Dielectrics

17–9 Electric Energy Storage

17–10 Digital

*17–11 TV and Computer Monitors

General Problems

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Chapter 18 Electric Currents

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

18–1 The Electric Battery

Electric Cells and Batteries

Electric Cars

18–2 Electric Current

Example 18–1 Current is flow of charge.

Approach

Solution

Exercise A

Conceptual Example 18–2 How to connect a battery.

Response

Exercise B

18–3 Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Resistors

Example 18–3 Flashlight bulb resistance.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise C

Conceptual Example 18–4 Current and potential.

Response

Some Helpful Clarifications

18–4 Resistivity

Exercise D

Exercise E

Example 18–5 Speaker wires.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 18–6 Stretching changes resistance.

Response

Exercise F

Temperature Dependence of Resistivity

Example 18–7 Resistance thermometer.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Exercise G

18–5 Electric Power

Example 18–8 Headlights.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 18–9 Electric heater.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 18–10 Estimate Lightning bolt.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise H

18–6 Power in Household Circuits

Example 18–11 Will a fuse blow?

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 18–12 A dangerous extension cord.

Response

Exercise I

18–7 Alternating Current

Example 18–13 Hair dryer.

Approach

Solution

*18–8 Microscopic View of Electric Current

Example 18–14 Electron speed in wire.

Approach

Solution

Note

*18–9 Superconductivity

*18–10 Electrical Conduction in the Human Nervous System

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

18–2 and 18–3 Electric Current, Resistance, Ohm’s Law

18–4 Resistivity

18–5 and 18–6 Electric Power

18–7 Alternating Current

*18–8 Microscopic View of Electric Current

*18–10 Nerve Conduction

General Problems

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Chapter 19 DC Circuits

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

19–1 EMF and Terminal Voltage

Example 19–1 Battery with internal resistance.

Approach

Solution

19–2 Resistors in Series and in Parallel

Exercise A

Conceptual Example 19–2 Series or parallel?

Response

Exercise B

Example 19–3 Series and parallel resistors.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 19–4 Circuit with series and parallel resistors.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 19–5 Current in one branch.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 19–6 Bulb brightness in a circuit.

Response

Exercise C

Example 19–7 Analyzing a circuit.

Approach

Solution

19–3 Kirchhoff’s Rules

Kirchhoff’s Rules

Example 19–8 Using Kirchhoff’s rules.

Approach and Solution

Note

Exercise D

19–4 EMFs in Series and in Parallel; Charging a Battery

Example 19–9 Jump starting a car.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise E

Safety when Jump Starting

19–5 Circuits Containing Capacitors in Series and in Parallel

Example 19–10 Equivalent capacitance.

Approach

Solution

Exercise F

Example 19–11 Charge and voltage on capacitors.

Approach

Solution

19–6 RC Circuits—Resistor and Capacitor in Series

Capacitor Charging

Example 19–12 RC circuit, with emf.

Approach

Solution

Capacitor Discharging

Example 19–13 A discharging RC circuit.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 19–14 Bulb in RC circuit.

Response

Medical and Other Applications of RC Circuits

Exercise G

19–7 Electric Hazards

Safe Wiring

19–8 Ammeters and Voltmeters—Measurement Affects the Quantity Being Measured

Example 19–15 Ammeter design.

Approach

Solution

Example 19–16 Voltmeter design.

Approach

Solution

How to Connect Meters

Effects of Meter Resistance

Example 19–17 Voltage reading vs. true voltage.

Approach

Solution

Note

Other Meters

Digital Meters

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

19–1 Emf and Terminal Voltage

19–2 Resistors in Series and Parallel

19–3 Kirchhoff’s Rules

19–4 Emfs Combined, Battery Charging

19–5 Capacitors in Series and Parallel

19–6 RC Circuits

19–8 Ammeters and Voltmeters

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 20 Magnetism

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

20–1 Magnets and Magnetic Fields

Earth’s Magnetic Field

Exercise A

Uniform Magnetic Field

20–2 Electric Currents Produce Magnetic Fields

Exercise B

20–3 Force on an Electric Current in a Magnetic Field; Definition of B→

Exercise C

Example 20–1 Magnetic force on a current-carrying wire.

Approach

Solution

Exercise D

Example 20–2 Measuring a magnetic field.

Approach

Solution

Note

20–4 Force on an Electric Charge Moving in a Magnetic Field

Conceptual Example 20–3 Negative charge near a magnet.

Response

Exercise E

Example 20–4 Magnetic force on a proton.

Approach

Solution

Exercise F

Example 20–5 Estimate Magnetic force on ions during a nerve pulse.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 20–6 Electron’s path in a uniform magnetic field.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 20–7 Stopping charged particles.

Response

Magnetic Fields

Conceptual Example 20–8 A helical path.

Response

Exercise G

* Aurora Borealis

*The Hall Effect

20–5 Magnetic Field Due to a Long Straight Wire

Example 20–9 Calculation of B→ near a wire.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Example 20–10 Magnetic field midway between two currents.

Approach

Solution

Exercise H

Conceptual Example 20–11 Magnetic field due to four wires.

Response

20–6 Force between Two Parallel Wires

Example 20–12 Force between two current-carrying wires.

Approach

Solution

Definition of the Ampere and the Coulomb

20–7 Solenoids and Electromagnets

Magnetic Circuit Breakers

20–8 Ampère’s Law

Field Due to a Straight Wire

Field Inside a Solenoid

20–9 Torque on a Current Loop; Magnetic Moment

Example 20–13 Torque on a coil.

Approach

Solution

Note

20–10 Applications: Motors, Loudspeakers, Galvanometers

Galvanometer

Electric Motors

Loudspeakers and Headsets

*20–11 Mass Spectrometer

Example 20–14 Mass spectrometry.

Approach

Solution

Note

20–12 Ferromagnetism: Domains and Hysteresis

*Sources of Ferromagnetism

*Magnetic Permeability

*Hysteresis

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

20–3 Force on Electric Current in Magnetic Field

20–4 Force on Charge Moving in Magnetic Field

20–5 and 20–6 Magnetic Field of Straight Wire, Force between Two Wires

20–7 Solenoids and Electromagnets

20–8 Ampère’s Law

20–9 and 20–10 Torque on Current Loop, Motors, Galvanometers

*20–11 Mass Spectrometer

*20–12 Ferromagnetism, Hysteresis

General Problems

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Chapter 21 Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday’s Law

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

21–1 Induced EMF

Exercise A

21–2 Faraday’s Law of Induction; Lenz’s Law

Example 21–1 A loop of wire in a magnetic field.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 21–2 Induction stove.

Response

Lenz’s Law

Conceptual Example 21–203 Practice with Lenz’s law.

Response

Example 21–4 Pulling a coil from a magnetic field.

Approach

Solution

Alternate Solution

Exercise B

21–3 EMF Induced in a Moving Conductor

Exercise C

Example 21–5 Estimate Does a moving airplane develop a large emf?

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 21–6 Electromagnetic blood-flow measurement.

Approach

Solution

Note

21–4 Changing Magnetic Flux Produces an Electric Field

21–5 Electric Generators

*Alternators

Deriving the Generator Equation

Example 21–7 An ac generator.

Approach

Solution

21–6 Back EMF and Counter Torque; Eddy Currents

Back EMF, in a Motor

Example 21–8 Back emf in a motor.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 21–9 Motor overload.

Response

Counter Torque, in a Generator

Exercise D

Eddy Currents

21–7 Transformers and Transmission of Power

Example 21–10 Cell phone charger.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise E

Example 21–11 Transmission lines.

Approach

Solution

Note

Wireless Transmission of Power—Inductive Charging

*21-8 Information Storage: Magnetic and Semiconductor; Tape, Hard Drive, RAM

*Magnetic Storage: Read/Write on Tape and Disks

*Semiconductor Memory: DRAM, Flash

*21–9 Applications of Induction: Microphone; Seismograph; GFCI

*Microphone

*Credit Card Reader

*Seismograph

*Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)

*21–10 Inductance

*Mutual Inductance

*Self-Inductance

Conceptual Example 21–12 Direction of emf in inductor.

Response

Example 21–13 Solenoid inductance.

Approach

Solution

*21–11 Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field

*21–12 LR Circuit

*21–13 AC Circuits and Reactance

*Resistor

*Inductor

*Capacitor

Example 21–14 Capacitor reactance.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise F

*21–14 LRC Series AC Circuit

*Phasor Diagrams

Example 21–15 LRC circuit.

Approach

Solution

Note

*21–15 Resonance in AC Circuits

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

21–1 to 21–4 Faraday’s Law of Induction

21–5 Generators

21–6 Back EMF and Torque

21–7 Transformers

*21–10 Inductance

*21–11 Magnetic Energy Storage

*21–12 LR Circuit

*21–13 AC Circuits and Reactance

*21–14 LRC Circuits

*21–15 Resonance in AC Circuits

General Problems

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Chapter 22 Electromagnetic Waves

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

22–1 Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields; Maxwell’s Equations

*Maxwell’s Fourth Equation (Ampère’s Law Extended)

22–2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves

Exercise A

22–3 Light as an Electromagnetic Wave and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Exercise B

Example 22–1 Wavelengths of EM waves.

Approach

Solution

Exercise C

Example 22–2 Estimate Cell phone antenna.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise D

Example 22–3 Estimate Phone call time lag.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise E

Exercise F

22–4 Measuring the Speed of Light

22–5 Energy in EM Waves

Example 22–4 E and B from the Sun.

Approach

Solution

Note

22–6 Momentum Transfer and Radiation Pressure

Example 22–5 Estimate Solar pressure.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 22–6 Estimate A solar sail.

Approach

Solution

Note

22–7 Radio and Television; Wireless Communication

Example 22–7 Tuning a station.

Approach

Solution

Note

Other EM Wave Communications

Wireless from the Moon

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

22–1 B→ Produced by Changing E→

22–2 EM Waves

22–3 Electromagnetic Spectrum

22–4 Measuring the Speed of Light

22–5 Energy in EM Wave

22–6 Radiation Pressure

22–7 Radio, TV

General Problems

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Chapter 23 Light: Geometric Optics

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

23–1 The Ray Model of Light

23–2 Reflection; Image Formation by a Plane Mirror

Example 23–1 Reflection from flat mirrors.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 23–2 How tall must a full-length mirror be?

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise A

Exercise B

Conceptual Example 23–3 Is the photo upside down?

Response

23–3 Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors

Focal Point and Focal Length

Image Formation—Ray Diagrams

Mirror Equation and Magnification

Concave Mirror Examples

Example 23–4 Image in a concave mirror.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 23–5 Reversible rays.

Response

Example 23–6 Object closer to concave mirror than focal point.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Seeing the Image; Seeing Yourself

Convex Mirrors

Spherical Mirrors

Example 23–7 Convex rearview mirror.

Approach

Solution

23–4 Index of Refraction

23–5 Refraction: Snell’s Law

Snell’s Law

Exercise C

Example 23–8 Refraction through flat glass.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 23–9 Apparent depth of a pool.

Approach

Solution

Note

23–6 Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics

Conceptual Example 23–10 View up from under water.

Response

Exercise D

Exercise E

Fiber Optics; Medical Instruments

23–7 Thin Lenses; Ray Tracing

Exercise F

Conceptual Example 23–11 Half-blocked lens.

Response

Note

Seeing the Image

Diverging Lens

23–8 The Thin Lens Equation

Thin Lenses

Example 23–12 Image formed by converging lens.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise G

Example 23–13 Object close to converging lens.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 23–14 Diverging lens.

Approach

Solution

*23–9 Combinations of Lenses

Example 23–15 A two-lens system.

Approach

Solution

Example 23–16 Measuring f for a diverging lens.

Approach

Solution

Note

*23–10 Lensmaker’s Equation

Example 23–17 Calculating f for a converging lens.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

23–2 Reflection; Plane Mirrors

23–3 Spherical Mirrors

23–4 Index of Refraction

23–5 Refraction; Snell’s Law

23–6 Total Internal Reflection

23–7 and 23–8 Thin Lenses

*23–9 Lens Combinations

*23–10 Lensmaker’s Equation

General Problems

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Chapter 24 The Wave Nature of Light

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

24–1 Waves vs. Particles; Huygens’ Principle and Diffraction

*24–2 Huygens’ Principle and the Law of Refraction

Exercise A

24–3 Interference—Young’s Double-Slit Experiment

Example 24–1 Line spacing for double-slit interference.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 24–2 Changing the wavelength.

Response

Example 24–3 Wavelengths from double-slit interference.

Approach

Solution

Exercise B

Coherence

24–4 The Visible Spectrum and Dispersion

Conceptual Example 24–4 Observed color of light under water.

Response

24–5 Diffraction by a Single Slit or Disk

Example 24–5 Single-slit diffraction maximum.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise C

Conceptual Example 24–6 Diffraction spreads.

Response

24–6 Diffraction Grating

Example 24–7 Diffraction grating: line positions.

Approach

Solution

Example 24–8 Spectra overlap.

Approach

Solution

Exercise D

24–7 The Spectrometer and Spectroscopy

Example 24–9 Hydrogen spectrum.

Approach

Solution

Note

24–8 Interference in Thin Films

Exercise E

Example 24–10 Thin film of air, wedge-shaped.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 24–11 Thickness of soap bubble skin.

Approach

Solution

Note

*Colors in a Thin Soap Film

Lens Coatings

Interference

Example 24–12 Nonreflective coating.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

*24–9 Michelson Interferometer

24–10 Polarization

Polaroids (Polarization by Absorption)

Example 24–13 Two Polaroids at 60°.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 24–14 Three Polaroids.

Response

Note

Exercise F

Polarization by Reflection

Example 24–15 Polarizing angle.

Approach

Solution

Note

*24–11 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD)

*24–12 Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

24–3 Double-Slit Interference

24–4 Visible Spectrum; Dispersion

24–5 Single-Slit Diffraction

24–5 and 24–7 Diffraction Gratings

24–8 Thin-Film Interference

*24–9 Michelson Interferometer

24–10 Polarization

General Problems

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Chapter 25 Optical Instruments

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

25–1 Cameras: Film and Digital

Digital Cameras, Electronic Sensors (CCD, CMOS)

Digital Artifacts

Camera Adjustments

Example 25–1 Camera focus.

Approach

Solution

Exercise A

Conceptual Example 25–2 Shutter speed.

Response

*Picture Sharpness

Example 25–3 Pixels and resolution.

Approach

Solution

NOTE

Example 25–4 Blown-up photograph.

Approach

Solution

Exercise B

Telephotos and Wide-angles

25–2 The Human Eye; Corrective Lenses

Example 25–5 Farsighted eye.

Approach

Solution

NOTE

Example 25–6 Nearsighted eye.

Approach

Solution

Contact Lenses

Exercise C

Underwater Vision

25–3 Magnifying Glass

Example 1–7 Estimate A jeweler’s “loupe.”

Approach

Solution

25–4 Telescopes

Example 25–8 Telescope magnification.

Approach

Solution

Exercise D

25–5 Compound Microscope

Example 25–9 Microscope.

Approach

Solution

25–6 Aberrations of Lenses and Mirrors

25–7 Limits of Resolution; Circular Apertures

Example 25–10 Hubble Space Telescope.

Approach

Solution

Example 25–11 Estimate Eye resolution.

Approach

Solution

Exercise E

25–8 Resolution of Telescopes and Microscopes; the λ Limit

Example 25–12 Telescope resolution (radio wave vs. visible light).

Approach

Solution

NOTE

25–9 Resolution of the Human Eye and Useful Magnification

Exercise F

*25–10 Specialty Microscopes and Contrast

25–11 X-Rays and X-Ray Diffraction

*X-Ray Diffraction

Exercise G

*25–12 X-Ray Imaging and Computed Tomography (CT Scan)

* Normal X-Ray Image

* Tomography Images (CT)

* Image Formation

* Tomographic Image Reconstruction

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

25–1 Camera

25–2 Eye and Corrective Lenses

25–3 Magnifying Glass

25–4 Telescopes

25–5 Microscopes

25–6 Lens Aberrations

25–7 to 25–9 Resolution Limits

*25–11 X-Ray Diffraction

*25–12 Imaging by Tomography

General Problems

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Chapter 26 The Special Theory of Relativity

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

26–1 Galilean–Newtonian Relativity

26–2 Postulates of the Special Theory of Relativity

26–3 Simultaneity

26–4 Time Dilation and the Twin Paradox

Example 26–1 Lifetime of a moving muon.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise A

Example 26–2 Time dilation at 100 km/h.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise B

Example 26–3 Reading a magazine on a spaceship.

Approach

Solution

Space Travel?

Twin Paradox

*Global Positioning System (GPS)

Conceptual Example 26–4 A relativity correction to GPS.

Response

Note

26–5 Length Contraction

Example 26–5 Painting’s contraction.

Approach

Solution

Example 26–6 A fantasy supertrain.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Exercise C

Conceptual Example 26–7 Resolving the train and tunnel length.

Response

26–6 Four-Dimensional Space–Time

26–7 Relativistic Momentum

Example 26–8 Momentum of moving electron.

Approach

Solution

* Rest Mass and Relativistic Mass

26–8 The Ultimate Speed

26–9 E = mc2; Mass and Energy

Example 26–9 Pion’s kinetic energy.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 26–10 Energy from nuclear decay.

Approach

Solution

Example 26–11 A 1-TeV proton.

Approach

Solution

* Invariant Energy–Momentum

When Do We Use Relativistic Formulas?

Exercise D

26–10 Relativistic Addition of Velocities

Example 26–12 Relative velocity, relativistically.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise E

Exercise F

26–11 The Impact of Special Relativity

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

26–4 and 26–5 Time Dilation, Length Contraction

26–7 Relativistic Momentum

26–9 E = mc2; Mass and Energy

26–10 Relativistic Addition of Velocities

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 27 Early Quantum Theory and Models of the Atom

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

27–1 Discovery and Properties of the Electron

Discovery in Science

Electron Charge Measurement

27–2 Blackbody Radiation; Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

Blackbody Radiation

Example 27–1 The Sun’s surface temperature.

Approach

Solution

Example 27–2 Star color.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise A

Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

27–3 Photon Theory of Light and the Photoelectric Effect

Example 27–3 Photon energy.

Approach

Solution

Example 27–4 Estimate Photons from a lightbulb.

Approach

Solution

Exercise B

Example 27–5 Photoelectron speed and energy.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise C

Applications of the Photoelectric Effect

27–4 Energy, Mass, and Momentum of a Photon

Example 27–6 Estimate Photon momentum and force.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 27–7 Photosynthesis.

Approach

Solution

*27–5 Compton Effect

Exercise D

Example 27–8 X-ray scattering.

Approach

Solution

Note

27–6 Photon Interactions; Pair Production

Example 27–9 Pair production.

Approach

Solution

Note

27–7 Wave-Particle Duality; the Principle of Complementarity

27–8 Wave Nature of Matter

Example 27–10 Wavelength of a ball.

Approach

Solution

Example 27–11 Wavelength of an electron.

Approach

Solution

Exercise E

Exercise F

Electron Diffraction

Example 27–12 Electron diffraction.

Solution

Note

What Is an Electron?

27–9 Electron Microscopes

27–10 Early Models of the Atom

27–11 Atomic Spectra: Key to the Structure of the Atom

27–12 The Bohr Model

Spectra Lines Explained

Example 27–13 Wavelength of a Lyman line.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 27–14 Wavelength of a Balmer line.

Approach

Solution

Example 27–15 Absorption wavelength.

Approach

Solution

Example 27–16 He+ ionization energy.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 27–17 Hydrogen at 20°C.

Response

Correspondence Principle

27–13 de Broglie’s Hypothesis Applied to Atoms

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

27–1 Discovery of the Electron

27–2 Blackbodies; Planck’s Quantum Hypothesis

27–3 and 27–4 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect

*27–5 Compton Effect

27–6 Pair Production

27–8 Wave Nature of Matter

27–9 Electron Microscope

27–11 and 27–12 Spectra and the Bohr Model

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 28 Quantum Mechanics of Atoms

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

28–1 Quantum Mechanics—A New Theory

28–2 The Wave Function and Its Interpretation; the Double-Slit Experiment

Double-Slit Interference Experiment for Electrons

28–3 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Exercise A

Example 28–1 Position uncertainty of electron.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise B

Example 28–2 Position uncertainty of a baseball.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 28–3 Estimate J/ψ lifetime calculated.

Approach

Solution

28–4 Philosophic Implications; Probability versus Determinism

28–5 Quantum-Mechanical View of Atoms

28–6 Quantum Mechanics of the Hydrogen Atom; Quantum Numbers

Conceptual Example 28–4 Possible states for n = 3.

Response

Exercise C

Example 28–5 E and L for n = 3.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise D

Selection Rules: Allowed and Forbidden Transitions

28–7 Multielectron Atoms; the Exclusion Principle

Exercise E

28–8 The Periodic Table of Elements

Conceptual Example 28–6 Electron configurations.

Response

Exercise F

*28–9 X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number

Example 28–7 X-ray wavelength.

Approach

Solution

Example 28–8 Determining atomic number.

Approach

Solution

Example 28–9 Cutoff wavelength.

Approach

Solution

Note

*28–10 Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

28–11 Lasers

Creating an Inverted Population

*Applications

*28–12 Holography

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

28–2 Wave Function, Double-Slit

28–3 Uncertainty Principle

28–6 to 28–8 Quantum Numbers, Exclusion Principle

*28–9 X-Rays

28–11 Lasers

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 29 Molecules and Solids

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

*29–1 Bonding in Molecules

* Covalent Bonds

* Ionic Bonds

* Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds

*29–2 Potential-Energy Diagrams for Molecules

*29–3 Weak (van der Waals) Bonds

Example 29–1 Nucleotide energy.

Approach

Solution

* Protein Synthesis

*29–4 Molecular Spectra

* Rotational Energy Levels in Molecules

Exercise A

Example 29–2 Rotational transition.

Approach

Solution

Exercise B

*Vibrational Energy Levels in Molecules

Example 29–3 Vibrational energy levels in hydrogen.

Approach

Solution

Exercise C

*29–5 Bonding in Solids

Exercise D

*29–6 Free-Electron Theory of Metals; Fermi Energy

*29–7 Band Theory of Solids

Example 29–4 Calculating the energy gap.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 29–5 Which is transparent?

Response

*29–8 Semiconductors and Doping

Exercise E

*29–9 Semiconductor Diodes, LEDs, OLEDs

Example 29–6 A diode.

Approach

Solution

* Rectifiers

* Photovoltaic Cells

*LEDs

* Pulse Oximeter

*pn Diode Lasers

* PLED (Organic LED)

* OLED Functioning (advanced)

*29–10 Transistors: Bipolar and MOSFETs

*29–11 Integrated Circuits, 22-nm Technology

* Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

*29–1 to 29–3 Molecular Bonds

*29–4 Molecular Spectra

*29–5 Bonding in Solids

*29–7 Band Theory of Solids

*29–8 Semiconductors and Doping

*29–9 Diodes

*29–10 Transistors

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 30 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

30–1 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus

Example 30–1 Estimate Nuclear sizes.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 30–2 Estimate Nuclear and atomic densities.

Approach

Solution

30–2 Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces

Binding Energies

Example 30–3 H24e mass compared to its constituents.

Approach

Solution

Exercise A

Example 30–4 Binding energy for iron.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise B

Example 30–5 Binding energy of last neutron.

Approach

Solution

Nuclear Forces

30–3 Radioactivity

30–4 Alpha Decay

Exercise C

Example 30–6 Uranium decay energy release.

Approach

Solution

Additional Example

Example 30–7 Kinetic energy of the α in U92232 decay.

Approach

Solution

Why α Particles?

Smoke Detectors—An Application

30–5 Beta Decay

β− Decay

Example 30–8 Energy release in C614 decay.

Approach

Solution

Note

β+ Decay

Electron Capture

30–6 Gamma Decay

* Isomers; Internal Conversion

30–7 Conservation of Nucleon Number and Other Conservation Laws

30–8 Half-Life and Rate of Decay

Exponential Decay

Half-Life

Exercise D

Exercise E

* Deriving the Half-Life Formula

*Mean Life

30–9 Calculations Involving Decay Rates and Half-Life

Example 30–9 Sample activity.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 30–10 Safety: Activity versus half-life.

Response

Example 30–11 A sample of radioactive N713.

Approach

Solution

30–10 Decay Series

Conceptual Example 30–12 Decay chain.

Response

30–11 Radioactive Dating

Example 30–13 An ancient animal.

Approach

Solution

Geological Time Scale Dating

*30–12 Stability and Tunneling

30–13 Detection of Particles

Counters

Visualization

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

30–1 Nuclear Properties

30–2 Binding Energy

30–3 to 30–7 Radioactive Decay

30–8 to 30–11 Half-Life, Decay Rates, Decay Series, Dating

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 31 Nuclear Energy; Effects and Uses of Radiation

Contents

Chapter-Opening Question—Guess now!

31–1 Nuclear Reactions and the Transmutation of Elements

Conceptual Example 31–1 Deuterium reaction.

Response

Exercise A

Example 31–2 A slow-neutron reaction.

Approach

Solution

Example 31–3 Will the reaction “go”?

Approach

Solution

Note

Neutron Physics

* Cross Section

31–2 Nuclear Fission; Nuclear Reactors

Nuclear Fission and Chain Reactions

Conceptual Example 31–4 Counting nucleons.

Response

Exercise B

Nuclear Reactors

Example 31–5 Uranium fuel amount.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise C

Atom Bomb

31–3 Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Fusion; Stars

Example 31–6 Fusion energy release.

Approach

Solution

Exercise D

Example 31–7 Estimate Estimating fusion energy.

Approach

Solution

Conceptual Example 31–8 Stellar fusion.

Response

Exercise E

Possible Fusion Reactors

Example 31–9 Estimate Temperature needed for d-t fusion.

Approach

Solution

Note

31–4 Passage of Radiation Through Matter; Biological Damage

Biological Damage

31–5 Measurement of Radiation—Dosimetry

Example 31–10 Radioactivity taken up by cells.

Approach

Solution

Human Exposure to Radiation

Conceptual Example 31–11 Limiting the dose.

Response

Example 31–12 Whole-body dose.

Approach

Solution

Note

Example 31–13 Radon exposure.

Approach

Solution

Note

*31–6 Radiation Therapy

*31–7 Tracers in Research and Medicine

*31–8 Emission Tomography: PET and SPECT

31–9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

* Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

* Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

31–1 Nuclear Reactions, Transmutation

31–2 Nuclear Fission

31–3 Nuclear Fusion

31–5 Dosimetry

31–9 NMR

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 32 Elementary Particles

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

32–1 High-Energy Particles and Accelerators

Wavelength and Resolution

Example 32–1 High resolution with electrons.

Approach

Solution

Note

Exercise A

Cyclotron

Example 32–2 Cyclotron.

Approach

Solution

Note

Note

Synchrotron

Linear Accelerators

Colliding Beams

Example 32–3 Protons at relativistic speeds.

Approach

Solution

Note

32–2 Beginnings of Elementary Particle Physics—Particle Exchange

Exercise B

32–3 Particles and Antiparticles

* Negative Sea of Electrons; Vacuum State

32–4 Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws

Conceptual Example 32–4 Lepton number in muon decay.

Response

Example 32–5 Energy and momentum are conserved.

Approach

Solution

32–5 Neutrinos

*Neutrino Mass Estimate from a Supernova

32–6 Particle Classification

Example 32–6 Baryon decay.

Approach

Solution

32–7 Particle Stability and Resonances

32–8 Strangeness? Charm? Towards a New Model

Conceptual Example 32–7 Guess the missing particle.

Response

32–9 Quarks

Exercise C

Conceptual Example 32–8 Quark combinations.

Response

Exercise D

32–10 The Standard Model: QCD and Electroweak Theory

Conceptual Example 32–9 Beta decay.

Response

Example 32–10 Estimate Range of weak force.

Approach

Solution

Note

32–11 Grand Unified Theories

Conceptual Example 32–11 Symmetry.

Response

Proton Decay

Example 32–12 Estimate Proton decay.

Approach

Solution

*GUT and Cosmology

32–12 Strings and Supersymmetry

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

32–1 Particles and Accelerators

32–2 to 32–6 Particle Interactions, Particle Exchange

32–7 to 32–11 Resonances, Standard Model, Quarks, QCD, GUT

General Problems

Search and Learn

Chapter 33 Astrophysics and Cosmology

Contents

Chapter-Opening Questions—Guess now!

33–1 Stars and Galaxies

Example 33–1 Estimate Our Galaxy’s mass.

Approach

Solution

Note

Conceptual Example 33–2 Looking back in time.

Response

Exercise A

33–2 Stellar Evolution: Birth and Death of Stars, Nucleosynthesis

Luminosity and Brightness of Stars

Example 33–3 Apparent brightness.

Approach

Solution

Example 33–4 Determining star temperature and star size.

Approach

Solution

H-R Diagram

Example 33–5 Estimate Distance to a star using the H-R diagram and color.

Approach

Solution

Exercise B

Stellar Evolution; Nucleosynthesis

Low Mass Stars—White Dwarfs

High Mass Stars—Supernovae, Neutron Stars, Black Holes

Novae and Supernovae

33–3 Distance Measurements

Parallax

Example 33–6 Estimate Distance to a star using parallax.

Approach

Solution

*Parsec

Distant Stars and Galaxies

Distance via SNIa, Redshift

33–4 General Relativity: Gravity and the Curvature of Space

Curvature of the Universe

Black Holes

Exercise C

Exercise D

33–5 The Expanding Universe: Redshift and Hubble’s Law

Redshift Origins

*Scale Factor (advanced)

Expansion, and the Cosmological Principle

*Steady-State Model

33–6 The Big Bang and the Cosmic Microwave Background

Looking Back toward the Big Bang—Lookback Time

The Observable Universe

33–7 The Standard Cosmological Model: Early History of the Universe

The History

33–8 Inflation: Explaining Flatness, Uniformity, and Structure

Flatness

CMB Uniformity

Galaxy Seeds, Fluctuations, Magnetic Monopoles

33–9 Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Critical Density

Exercise E

Dark Matter

Dark Energy—Cosmic Acceleration

33–10 Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

33–11 Finally…

Summary

Questions

MisConceptual Questions

Problems

33–1 to 33–3 Stars, Galaxies, Stellar Evolution, Distances

33–4 General Relativity, Gravity and Curved Space

33–5 Redshift, Hubble’s Law

33–6 to 33–8 The Big Bang, CMB, Universe Expansion

33–9 Dark Matter, Dark Energy

General Problems

Search and Learn

Appendix A Mathematical Review

A–1 Relationships, Proportionality, and Equations

A–2 Exponents

A–3 Powers of 10, or Exponential Notation

A–4 Algebra

A–5 The Binomial Expansion

A–6 Plane Geometry

A–7 Trigonometric Functions and Identities

A-8 Logarithms

Appendix B Selected Isotopes

Appendix C Rotating Frames of Reference; Inertial Forces; Coriolis Effect

Inertial and Noninertial Reference Frames

Appendix D Molar Specific Heats for Gases, and the Equipartition of Energy

Molar Specific Heats for Gases

Appendix E Galilean and Lorentz Transformations

Example E–1 Length contraction.

Example E–2 Time dilation.

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems

Index

Photo Credits

Fundamental Constants

Other Useful Data

The Greek Alphabet

Values of Some Numbers

Mathematical Signs and Symbols

Properties of Water

Unit Conversions (Equivalents)

SI Derived Units and Their Abbreviations

Metric (SI) Multipliers

Useful Geometry Formulas – Areas, Volumes

Exponents [See Appendix A-2 for details]

Quadratic Formula [Appendix A-4]

Logarithms [Appendix A-8; Table p. A-11]

Binomial Expansion [Appendix A-5]

Fractions

Trigonometric Formulas [Appendix A-7]

* Douglas C. Giancoli* obtained his BA in physics (summa cum laude) from UC Berkeley, his MS in physics at MIT, and his PhD in elementary particle physics back at the UC Berkeley. He spent 2 years as a post-doctoral fellow at UC Berkeley’s Virus lab developing skills in molecular biology and biophysics. His mentors include Nobel winners Emilio Segrè and Donald Glaser.He has taught a wide range of undergraduate courses, traditional as well as innovative ones, and continues to update his textbooks meticulously, seeking ways to better provide an understanding of physics for students.

Doug’s favorite spare-time activity is the outdoors, especially climbing peaks. He says climbing peaks is like learning physics: it takes effort and the rewards are great.

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