Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals 2nd Edition by John Heywood, ISBN-13: 978-1260116106


Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals 2nd Edition by John Heywood, ISBN-13: 978-1260116106

[PDF eBook eTextbook]

  • Publisher: ‎ McGraw Hill; 2nd edition (May 1, 2018)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 1056 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 9781260116106
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-1260116106

Written by one of the most recognized and highly regarded names in internal combustion engines this trusted educational resource and professional reference covers the key physical and chemical processes that govern internal combustion engine operation and design.

Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, Second Edition, has been thoroughly revised to cover recent advances, including performance enhancement, efficiency improvements, and emission reduction technologies. Highly illustrated and cross referenced, the book includes discussions of these engines’ environmental impacts and requirements. You will get complete explanations of spark-ignition and compression-ignition (diesel) engine operating characteristics as well as of engine flow and combustion phenomena and fuel requirements.

Coverage includes:

• Engine types and their operation
• Engine design and operating parameters
• Thermochemistry of fuel-air mixtures
• Properties of working fluids
• Ideal models of engine cycles
• Gas exchange processes
• Mixture preparation in spark-ignition engines
• Charge motion within the cylinder
• Combustion in spark-ignition engines
• Combustion in compression-ignition engines
• Pollutant formation and control
• Engine heat transfer
• Engine friction and lubrication
• Modeling real engine flow and combustion processes
• Engine operating characteristics

Table of Contents:

Commonly Used Symbols, Subscripts, and Abbreviations

CHAPTER 1 Engine Types and Their Operation

1.1 Introduction and Historical Perspective

1.2 Engine Classifications

1.3 Engine Operating Cycles

1.4 Engine Components

1.5 Multicylinder Engines

1.6 Spark-Ignition Engine Operation

1.7 Different Types of Four-Stroke SI Engines

1.7.1 Spark-Ignition Engines with Port Fuel Injection

1.7.2 SI Engines for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

1.7.3 Boosted SI Engines

1.7.4 Direct-Injection SI Engines

1.7.5 Prechamber SI Engines

1.7.6 Rotary Engines

1.8 Compression-Ignition Engine Operation

1.9 Different Types of Diesel Engines

1.10 Two-Stroke Cycle Engine Operation

1.11 Fuels

1.11.1 Gasoline and Diesel

1.11.2 Alternative Fuels



CHAPTER 2 Engine Design and Operating Parameters

2.1 Important Engine Characteristics

2.2 Geometrical Relationships for Reciprocating Engines

2.3 Forces in Reciprocating Mechanism

2.4 Brake Torque and Power

2.5 Indicated Work per Cycle

2.6 Mechanical Efficiency

2.7 Mean Effective Pressure

2.8 Specific Fuel Consumption and Efficiency

2.9 Air/Fuel and Fuel/Air Ratios

2.10 Volumetric Efficiency

2.11 Specific Power, Specific Weight, and Specific Volume

2.12 Correction Factors for Power and Volumetric Efficiency

2.13 Specific Emissions and Emissions Index

2.14 Relationships between Performance Parameters

2.15 Engine Design and Performance Data

2.16 Vehicle Power Requirements



CHAPTER 3 Thermochemistry of Fuel-Air Mixtures

3.1 Characterization of Flames

3.2 Ideal Gas Model

3.3 Composition of Air and Fuels

3.4 Combustion Stoichiometry

3.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Combustion

3.5.1 Energy and Enthalpy Balances

3.5.2 Enthalpies of Formation

3.5.3 Heating Values

3.5.4 Adiabatic Combustion Processes

3.5.5 Combustion Efficiency of an Internal Combustion Engine

3.6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Combustion

3.6.1 Entropy

3.6.2 Maximum Work from an Internal Combustion Engine and Efficiency

3.7 Chemically Reacting Gas Mixtures

3.7.1 Chemical Equilibrium

3.7.2 Chemical Reaction Rates



CHAPTER 4 Properties of Working Fluids

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Unburned Mixture Composition

4.3 Gas Property Relationships

4.4 A Simple Analytic Ideal Gas Model

4.5 Thermodynamic Property Charts

4.5.1 Unburned Mixture Charts

4.5.2 Burned Mixture Charts

4.5.3 Relation between Unburned and Burned Mixture Charts

4.6 Tables of Properties and Composition

4.7 Computer Routines for Property and Composition Calculations

4.7.1 Unburned Mixtures

4.7.2 Burned Mixtures

4.8 Transport Properties

4.9 Exhaust Gas Composition

4.9.1 Species Concentration Data

4.9.2 Equivalence Ratio Determination from Exhaust Gas Constituents

4.9.3 Effects of Fuel/Air Ratio Nonuniformity

4.9.4 Combustion Inefficiency



CHAPTER 5 Ideal Models of Engine Cycles

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Ideal Models of Engine Processes

5.3 Thermodynamic Relations for Engine Processes

5.4 Cycle Analysis with Ideal Gas Working Fluid with cv and cp Constant

5.4.1 Constant-Volume Cycle

5.4.2 Limited- and Constant-Pressure Cycles

5.4.3 Cycle Comparison

5.5 Fuel-Air Cycle Analysis

5.5.1 SI Engine Cycle Simulation

5.5.2 CI Engine Cycle Simulation

5.5.3 Results of Cycle Calculations

5.6 Overexpanded Engine Cycles

5.7 Availability Analysis of Engine Processes

5.7.1 Availability Relationships

5.7.2 Entropy Changes in Ideal Cycles

5.7.3 Availability Analysis of Ideal Cycles

5.7.4 Effect of Equivalence Ratio

5.8 Comparison with Real Engine Cycles



CHAPTER 6 Gas Exchange Processes

6.1 Intake and Exhaust Processes in the Four-Stroke Cycle

6.2 Volumetric Efficiency

6.2.1 Quasi-Static Effects

6.2.2 Intake and Exhaust Flow Resistances

6.2.3 Intake and In-Cylinder Heat Transfer

6.2.4 Intake Valve Timing Effects

6.2.5 Airflow Choking at Intake Valve

6.2.6 Intake and Exhaust Tuning

6.2.7 Combined Effects: Naturally-Aspirated Engines

6.2.8 Effects of Turbocharging

6.3 Flow through Valves and Ports

6.3.1 Valve and Port Geometry and Operation

6.3.2 Flow Rates and Discharge Coefficients

6.3.3 Variable Valve Timing and Control

6.4 Residual Gas Fraction

6.5 Exhaust Gas Flow Rate and Temperature Variation

6.6 Scavenging in Two-Stroke Cycle Engines

6.6.1 Two-Stroke Engine Configurations

6.6.2 Scavenging Parameters and Models

6.6.3 Actual Scavenging Processes

6.7 Flow through Two-Stroke Engine Ports

6.8 Supercharging and Turbocharging

6.8.1 Methods of Power Boosting

6.8.2 Basic Relationships

6.8.3 Compressors

6.8.4 Turbines

6.8.5 Compressor, Engine, Turbine Matching

6.8.6 Wave-Compression Devices



CHAPTER 7 Mixture Preparation in SI Engines

7.1 Spark-Ignition Engine Mixture Requirements

7.2 Fuel Metering Overview

7.2.1 Mixture Formation Approaches

7.2.2 Relevant Characteristics of Fuels

7.3 Central (Throttle-Body) Fuel Injection

7.4 Port (Multipoint) Fuel Injection

7.4.1 System Layout, Components, and Function

7.4.2 Fuel Spray Behavior

7.4.3 Reverse Flow Impacts

7.5 Air Flow Phenomena

7.5.1 Flow Past the Throttle Plate

7.5.2 Flow in Intake Manifolds

7.5.3 Air Flow Models

7.6 Fuel Flow Phenomena: Port Fuel Injection

7.6.1 Liquid Fuel Behavior

7.6.2 Transients: Fuel-Film Models

7.7 Direct Fuel Injection

7.7.1 Overview of Direct-Injection Approaches

7.7.2 DI Mixture Preparation Processes

7.7.3 DI Engine System and Components

7.8 Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensors

7.9 Fuel Supply Systems

7.10 Liquid Petroleum Gas and Natural Gas



CHAPTER 8 Charge Motion within the Cylinder

8.1 Intake-Generated Flows

8.2 Mean Velocity and Turbulence Characteristics

8.2.1 Definitions of Relevant Parameters

8.2.2 Application to Engine Velocity Data

8.3 Swirl

8.3.1 Swirl Measurement

8.3.2 Swirl Generation during Induction

8.3.3 Swirl Modification within the Cylinder

8.4 Tumble

8.5 Piston-Generated Flows: Squish

8.6 Swirl, Tumble, Squish Flow Interactions

8.7 Prechamber Engine Flows

8.8 Crevice Flows and Blowby

8.9 Flows Generated by Piston Cylinder-Wall Interaction



CHAPTER 9 Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines

9.1 Essential Features of Process

9.1.1 Combustion Fundamentals

9.1.2 SI Engine Combustion Process

9.2 Thermodynamics of SI Engine Combustion

9.2.1 Burned and Unburned Mixture States

9.2.2 Analysis of Cylinder Pressure Data

9.2.3 Combustion Process Characterization

9.3 Flame Structure and Speed

9.3.1 Overall Observations

9.3.2 Flame Structure

9.3.3 Laminar Burning Speeds

9.3.4 Flame Propagation Relations

9.3.5 Combustion with Direct Fuel Injection

9.4 Cyclic Variations in Combustion, Partial Burning, and Misfire

9.4.1 Observations and Definitions

9.4.2 Causes of Cycle-by-Cycle and Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variations

9.4.3 Partial Burning, Misfire, and Engine Stability

9.5 Spark Ignition

9.5.1 Ignition Fundamentals

9.5.2 Standard Ignition Systems

9.5.3 Alternative Ignition Approaches

9.6 Abnormal Combustion: Spontaneous Ignition and Knock

9.6.1 Description of Phenomena

9.6.2 Knock Fundamentals

9.6.3 Fuel Factors

9.6.4 Sporadic Preignition and Knock

9.6.5 Knock Suppression



CHAPTER 10 Combustion in Compression-Ignition Engines

10.1 Essential Features of Process

10.2 Types of Diesel Combustion Systems

10.2.1 Direct-Injection Systems

10.2.2 Other Diesel Combustion Systems

10.2.3 Comparison of Different Combustion Systems

10.3 Diesel Engine Combustion

10.3.1 Optical Studies of Diesel Combustion

10.3.2 Combustion in Direct-Injection Multi-Spray Systems

10.3.3 Heat-Release-Rate Analysis

10.3.4 Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion

10.4 Fuel Spray Behavior

10.4.1 Fuel Injection

10.4.2 Overall Spray Structure

10.4.3 Atomization and Spray Development

10.4.4 Spray Penetration

10.4.5 Droplet Size Distribution

10.4.6 Spray Evaporation

10.5 Ignition Delay

10.5.1 Definition and Discussion

10.5.2 Fuel Ignition Quality

10.5.3 Autoignition and Premixed Burn

10.5.4 Physical Factors Affecting Ignition Delay

10.5.5 Effect of Fuel Properties

10.5.6 Correlations for Ignition Delay in Engines

10.6 Mixing-Controlled Combustion

10.6.1 Background

10.6.2 Spray and Flame Structure

10.6.3 Fuel-Air Mixing and Burning Rates

10.7 Alternative Compression-Ignition Combustion Approaches

10.7.1 Multiple-Injection Diesel Combustion

10.7.2 Advanced Compression-Ignition Combustion Concepts



CHAPTER 11 Pollutant Formation and Control

11.1 Nature and Extent of Problem

11.2 Nitrogen Oxides

11.2.1 Kinetics of NO Formation

11.2.2 Formation of NO2

11.2.3 NO Formation in Spark-Ignition Engines

11.2.4 NOx Formation in Compression-Ignition Engines

11.3 Carbon Monoxide

11.4 Hydrocarbon Emissions

11.4.1 Background

11.4.2 Flame Quenching and Oxidation Fundamentals

11.4.3 HC Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

11.4.4 Hydrocarbon Emission Mechanisms in Diesel Engine

11.5 Particulate Emissions

11.5.1 Spark-Ignition Engine Particulates

11.5.2 Characteristics of Diesel Particulates

11.5.3 Particulate Distribution within the Cylinder

11.5.4 Soot Formation Fundamentals

11.5.5 Soot Oxidation

11.5.6 Adsorption and Condensation

11.6 Exhaust Gas Treatment

11.6.1 Available Options

11.6.2 Catalyst Fundamentals

11.6.3 Catalytic Converters

11.6.4 Particulate Filters or Traps

11.6.5 Exhaust Treatment Systems



CHAPTER 12 Engine Heat Transfer

12.1 Importance of Heat Transfer

12.2 Modes of Heat Transfer

12.2.1 Conduction

12.2.2 Convection

12.2.3 Radiation

12.2.4 Overall Heat-Transfer Process

12.3 Heat Transfer and Engine Energy Balance

12.4 Convective Heat Transfer

12.4.1 Dimensional Analysis

12.4.2 Correlations for Time-Averaged Heat Flux

12.4.3 Correlations for Instantaneous Spatial Average Coefficients

12.4.4 Correlations for Instantaneous Local Coefficients

12.4.5 Exhaust and Intake System Heat Transfer

12.5 Radiative Heat Transfer

12.5.1 Radiation from Gases

12.5.2 Flame Radiation

12.6 Measurements of Instantaneous Heat-Transfer Rates

12.6.1 Measurement Methods

12.6.2 Spark-Ignition Engine Measurements

12.6.3 Diesel Engine Measurements

12.6.4 Evaluation of Heat-Transfer Correlations

12.6.5 Boundary-Layer Behavior

12.7 Thermal Loading and Component Temperatures

12.7.1 Effect of Engine Variables

12.7.2 Component Temperature Distributions

12.7.3 Engine Warm-Up



CHAPTER 13 Engine Friction and Lubrication

13.1 Background

13.2 Definitions

13.3 Friction Fundamentals

13.3.1 Lubricated Friction

13.3.2 Turbulent Dissipation

13.3.3 Total Friction

13.4 Measurement Methods

13.5 Engine Friction Data

13.5.1 SI Engines

13.5.2 Diesel Engines

13.6 Mechanical Friction Components

13.6.1 Motored Engine Breakdown Tests

13.6.2 Engine Lubrication System

13.6.3 Piston Assembly Friction and Lubrication

13.6.4 Crankshaft Friction

13.6.5 Valvetrain Friction

13.7 Pumping Friction

13.8 Accessory Power Requirements

13.9 Engine Friction Modeling

13.10 Oil Consumption

13.10.1 Oil Consumption Context

13.10.2 Oil Transport into the Cylinder

13.10.3 Oil Evaporation

13.10.4 Blowby and Oil Entrainment

13.11 Lubricants



CHAPTER 14 Modeling Real Engine Flow and Combustion Processes

14.1 Purpose and Classification of Models

14.2 Governing Equations for an Open Thermodynamic System

14.2.1 Conservation of Mass

14.2.2 Conservation of Energy

14.3 Intake and Exhaust Flow Models

14.3.1 Background

14.3.2 Quasi-Steady Flow Models

14.3.3 Filling and Emptying Methods

14.3.4 Gas Dynamic Models

14.4 Thermodynamic-Based In-Cylinder Models

14.4.1 Background and Overall Model Structure

14.4.2 Spark-Ignition Engine Models

14.4.3 Direct-Injection Engine Models

14.4.4 Prechamber Engine Models

14.4.5 Multi-Cylinder and Complex Engine System Models

14.4.6 Second-Law Analysis of Engine Processes

14.5 Fluid-Mechanic-Based Multi-Dimensional Models

14.5.1 Basic Approach and Governing Equations

14.5.2 Turbulence Models

14.5.3 Numerical Methodology

14.5.4 Flow Field Predictions

14.5.5 Fuel Spray Modeling

14.5.6 Combustion Modeling


CHAPTER 15 Engine Operating Characteristics

15.1 Engine Design Objectives

15.2 Engine Performance

15.2.1 Basic Characteristics of SI and Diesel Engines

15.2.2 Characterizing Engine Performance

15.2.3 Torque, Power, and Mean Effective Pressure

15.2.4 Engine Performance Maps

15.3 Operating Variables That Affect SI Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions

15.3.1 Spark Timing

15.3.2 Mixture Composition

15.3.3 Load and Speed

15.3.4 Compression Ratio

15.4 SI Engine Combustion System Design

15.4.1 Objectives and Options

15.4.2 Factors That Control Combustion

15.4.3 Factors That Control Performance

15.4.4 Chamber Octane Requirement

15.4.5 SI Engine Emissions

15.4.6 Optimization

15.5 Variables That Affect Diesel Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions

15.5.1 Load and Speed

15.5.2 Combustion-System Design

15.5.3 Fuel Injection and EGR

15.5.4 Overall System Behavior

15.6 Two-Stroke Cycle Engines

15.6.1 Performance Parameters

15.6.2 Two-Stroke Gasoline SI Engines

15.6.3 Two-Stroke Cycle CI Engines

15.7 Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

15.7.1 Engine Noise

15.7.2 Reciprocating Mechanism Dynamics

15.7.3 Engine Balancing

15.8 Engine Performance and Fuels Summary



APPENDIX A Unit Conversion Factors

APPENDIX B Ideal Gas Relationships

B.1 Ideal Gas Law

B.2 The Mole

B.3 Thermodynamic Properties

B.4 Mixtures of Ideal Gases

APPENDIX C Equations for Fluid Flow through a Restriction

C.1 Liquid Flow

C.2 Gas Flow


APPENDIX D Data on Working Fluids


John B. Heywood has been a faculty member at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1968, where he was Sun Jae Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Director of the Sloan Automotive Laboratory. He has published over 230 technical papers and is the author of five books, including the first edition of Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals.

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