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Hydraulic Fracturing: Fundamentals and Advancements by Jennifer Miskimins, ISBN-13: 978-1613997192

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Hydraulic Fracturing: Fundamentals and Advancements by Jennifer Miskimins, ISBN-13: 978-1613997192

[PDF eBook eTextbook]

  • Publisher: ‎Society of Petroleum Engineers (February 9, 2020)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 795 pages
  • ISBN-10: 1613997192
  • ISBN-13: 978-1613997192

With an author team of 26 subject-matter experts representing a diversity of talent, background, and experience, Hydraulic Fracturing: Fundamentals and Advancements, delivers a comprehensive discussion on the principles of hydraulic fracturing while also including the latest processes that have prompted the explosive growth in stimulating horizontal wells in shale and tight oil and gas reservoirs.

Table of Contents:

Preface …………………………….v
Acknowledgements ……….. vii
Chapter 1 – Introduction …..1
1.1 What Has Changed Since Monograph 12……………4
1.2 Geologic Considerations …………………………………..5
1.3 Conventional vs. Unconventional Reservoirs ……….6
1.4 Horizontal vs. Vertical Wellbores ………………………..7
1.5 Other Types of Fracturing Stimulation …………………8
1.6 References ……………9
Chapter 2 – Pretreatment Formation Evaluation ………..13
2.1 Overview …………….13
2.2 Geologic Considerations …………………………………15
2.3 Acquiring Properties Using Wireline Logging …….21
2.4 Core Analysis ………29
2.5 Recap: How To Use These Data? …………………….37
2.6 Nomenclature ……..38
2.7 References ………….39
Chapter 3 – Rock Mechanics and Fracture Geometry ..47
3.1 Overview …………….47
3.2 Rock Properties …..48
3.3 In-Situ Stress ………61
3.4 Fracture-Height Growth in Geologic Media ………..66
3.5 Fracture Complexity ……………………………………….66
3.6 Summary ……………69
3.7 Nomenclature ……..69
3.8 References ………….70
Chapter 4 – Hydraulic Fracture Modeling ………………….75
4.1 Introduction ……….76
4.2 Modeling Objectives ……………………………………..78
4.3 Basic Physical Principles in Fracture Propagation Models ………………….82
4.4 Basic Fracture Modeling Concepts …………………85
4.5 1D and 2D Fracture Growth Models ……………….88
4.6 The First Fracture Model Calibration Effort—Identifying Growth Behavior ……..90
4.7 Advanced Fracture Modeling Concepts I …………92
4.8 Advanced 3D Fracture Growth Models ……………96
4.9 The Second Fracture Model Calibration Effort—Net-Pressure Matching ……….96
4.10 Advanced Fracture Modeling Concepts II ………101
4.11 The Third Fracture Model Calibration Effort—Reconciliation With Fracture Diagnostics ………….103
4.12 Complex Fracture Models ……………………………113
4.13 Fully Coupled Geomechanical Fracture Models ……………………………………….120
4.14 Further Fracture Model Integration and Novel Developments …………………….129
4.15 Fracture Modeling Advantages and Challenges ……………………………………….131
4.16 Thoughts on Future Use and Developments of Fracture Growth Models ……..133
4.17 Conclusions …….135
4.18 Nomenclature ….135
4.19 References ………136
Chapter 5 – Proppants and Fracture Conductivity ……143
5.1 Overview …………..144
5.2 Introduction ……….144
5.3 Effect of Fracture Conductivity on Well Performance …………………………………..145
5.4 Commercial Proppants …………………………………146
5.5 Laboratory Measurements of Fracture Conductivity ……………………………………152
x Table of Contents
5.6 Factors Affecting Fracture Conductivity—Proppant Characteristics and Fluids .154
5.7 Factors Affecting Fracture Conductivity—Interactions with the Reservoir ………158
5.8 Nomenclature ……162
5.9 References ………..162
Chapter 6 – Fracturing Fluids and Additives ……………165
6.1 Overview …………166
6.2 Properties of a Viscous Fracturing Fluid ………..166
6.3 Water-Based Fracturing Fluids……………………..167
6.4 Oil-Based Fracturing Fluids …………………………174
6.5 Alcohol-Based Fracturing Fluids …………………..174
6.6 Emulsion Fracturing Fluids ………………………….174
6.7 Foam-Based Fracturing Fluids ……………………..176
6.8 Energized Fracturing Fluids …………………………178
6.9 Fracturing Fluid Additives…………………………….178
6.10 Waterfracs ……….184
6.11 References ………185
6.12 Recommended Reading List ……………………….191
Chapter 7 – Fluid Leakoff 199
7.1 Overview …………199
7.2 Introduction ……..200
7.3 Fluid-Leakoff Equation ………………………………..200
7.4 Modeling of Leakoff Coefficient …………………….210
7.5 Laboratory Measurements of Fluid-Loss Parameters ………………………………..216
7.6 Effect of Key Parameters on Leakoff ………………219
7.7 Advances in Fluid-Loss Additives…………………..223
7.8 Pressure-Dependent Leakoff ……………………….225
7.9 Nomenclature ….227
7.10 References ………228
Chapter 8 – Flow Behavior of Fracturing Fluids ……….233
8.1 Introduction ……..233
8.2 Rheology and Classification of Fluids ……………234
8.3 Rheological Characterization of Fracturing Fluids …………………………………….235
8.4 Rheological Instrumentation ………………………..240
8.5 Perforation Friction Pressure Loss ………………..241
8.6 Newtonian Fluid Flow in Straight Tubulars ……..246
8.7 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Straight Tubulars 246
8.8 Newtonian Fluid Flow in Coiled Tubulars ……….252
8.9 Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Coiled Tubulars…253
8.10 Nomenclature ….256
8.11 References ………257
Chapter 9 – Proppant Transport ………………………………261
9.1 Overview …………..261
9.2 Introduction ……….261
9.3 Fundamentals of Proppant Transport ………………262
9.4 Proppant Transport Within the Fracture …………..265
9.5 Proppant Transport in Complex Fracture Network ………………………………………278
9.6 Proppant Flowback ………………………………………280
9.7 Nomenclature ……285
9.8 References ………..285
Chapter 10 – Hydraulic Fracturing-Treatment Design 291
10.1 Introduction ……292
10.2 Outline ………….292
10.3 Key Influences .292
10.4 Fracturing-Treatment Design Process …………294
10.5 Treatment Design Workflow ……………………….294
10.6 Key Input Data .294
10.7 Generating Log-Based Models for Fracture Simulators ……………………………295
10.8 Fracturing-Fluid Leakoff Calculations…………..295
10.9 Model Calibration ……………………………………..296
10.10 Stress and Rock-Property Calibration Process ………………………………………296
10.11 Fracture Width Calculations ……………………….299
10.12 Well Productivity/Hydraulic Fracture Relationship ……………………………………300
10.13 Material Selection: Fracturing Fluids ……………301
10.14 Foamed Fracturing Fluids ………………………….302
10.15 Material Selection: Proppants …………………….304
10.16 NPV Calculations for Fracturing Treatments …305
10.17 Pump Schedule ……………………………………….307
Table of Contents xi
10.18 Proppant-Concentration Schedule ………………308
10.19 Pump Schedule Generation ……………………….309
10.20 Tip-Screenout Design ……………………………….312
10.21 Low-Viscosity-Fluid Design: Slickwater and Hybrid …………………………………312
10.22 Perforating for Hydraulic Fracturing……………..313
10.23 Limited-Entry Design ………………………………..313
10.24 Fracturing-Treatment Design Cases: Pump Schedule ……………………………..318
10.25 Design Approaches in Unconventional Shale Reservoirs …………………………320
10.26 Comprehensive Fracturing-Treatment Design 325
10.27 Nomenclature ..333
10.28 References …….335
Chapter 11 – Well Completions ……………………………….345
11.1 Overview ……….346
11.2 Introduction to Completions ……………………….346
11.3 Well Construction for Hydraulic Fracturing ……347
11.4 Completion Strategies for Hydraulic Fracturing ………………………………………367
11.5 Perforating for Hydraulic Fracturing …………….371
11.6 Multistage Placement Control and Treatment Diversion Techniques ………….383
11.7 Considerations for Selecting a Multistage Placement Control Technique ……394
11.8 Additional Well Completion Considerations ….398
11.9 Nomenclature ..403
11.10 References …….404
Chapter 12 – Field Implementation of Hydraulic Fracturing ……………………………….415
12.1 Overview ……….416
12.2 Treatment Planning …………………………………..417
12.3 Fracturing Equipment ………………………………..418
12.4 Treatment Execution …………………………………434
12.5 Treating Pressure Interpretation ………………….454
12.6 Treatment Redesign ………………………………….463
12.7 Foam Fracturing ……………………………………….463
12.8 Acid Fracturing .477
12.9 Coalbed Methane Fracturing Applications ……478
12.10 Environmental Considerations ……………………482
12.11 Nomenclature ..484
12.12 References …….485
Chapter 13 – Fracturing Pressure Analysis ……………..489
13.1 Overview …………490
13.2 Components of Pumping Pressure ……………….492
13.3 Prefracturing and Calibration Tests ……………….495
13.4 Treating-Pressure Analysis ………………………….514
13.5 Application to Treatment Schedule Design and Modification ………………………520
13.6 Nomenclature ….520
13.7 References ………521
Chapter 14 – Flowback and Early-Time Production Data Analysis………………………523
14.1 Introduction ……..524
14.2 RTA of Flowback and Early-Time Production Data ……………………………………525
14.3 Case Studies …..568
14.4 Summary, Discussion, and Current and Future Work ………………………………..569
14.5 Nomenclature ….576
14.6 Acknowledgments ………………………………………580
14.7 References ………580
Appendix 14.A …………..586
Appendix 14.B …………..588
Appendix 14.C …………..591
Appendix 14.D …………..594
Appendix 14.E …………..598
Appendix 14.F …………..606
Appendix 14.G …………..608
Appendix 14.H …………..611
Appendix 14.I ……………617
Chapter 15 – Fracture Diagnostics ………………………….625
15.1 Overview …………625
15.2 Microseismic Monitoring ……………………………..626
15.3 Surface Tiltmeter Monitoring ………………………..638
15.4 Downhole Tiltmeter Monitoring …………………….641
15.5 Radioactive Proppant Tracers ………………………644
15.6 Chemical Fracture Tracers (CFTs) ………………..645
xii Table of Contents
15.7 Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensing ………………….647
15.8 Wellbore Imaging ……………………………………..651
15.9 Review ………….652
15.10 Nomenclature ..653
15.11 References …….654
Chapter 16 – Economics of Fracturing …………………….657
16.1 Introduction ……658
16.2 General Economic and Business Considerations ……………………………………658
16.3 Conventional Reservoir Response to Fracture Penetration and Conductivity ………………………660
16.4 Unconventional Reservoir Production Analysis ……………………………………….666
16.5 General Economic Parameters …………………..669
16.6 Hydraulic Fracturing Treatment Costs ………….670
16.7 Conventional-Fracturing-Treatment Economics ………………………………………674
16.8 Unconventional-Fracturing-Treatment Economics ……………………………………681
16.9 Other Considerations ………………………………..686
16.10 Summary ………689
16.11 Nomenclature ..689
16.12 References …….690
Chapter 17 – Acid Fracturing ………………………………….693
17.1 Introduction ……694
17.2 Candidates for Acid Fracturing……………………694
17.3 Deciding Between Propped and Acid Fracturing ……………………698
17.4 Acid/Mineral Reaction ……………………………….699
17.5 Reaction Stoichiometry of Acids …………………699
17.6 Reaction Kinetics of Acids …………………………705
17.7 Acid Mass Transfer ……………………………………707
17.8 Acid Types in Well Stimulation ……………………709
17.9 Modeling of Hydraulic Fractures …………………710
17.10 Acid Penetration ……………………………………….713
17.11 Acid-Fracture Conductivity …………………………720
17.12 Acid-Fracturing-Treatment Design ………………724
17.13 Simulator-Based Acid-Fracturing Modeling ….728
17.14 Nomenclature ..732
17.15 References …….737
Appendix 17.A: Acid-Fracturing-Treatment Design Example …………………742
Chapter 18 – Refracturing ……………………………………….753
18.1 Introduction …….753
18.2 Case Histories of Refracturing Treatments ……755
18.3 Determining the Need for Refracturing …………761
18.4 Candidate Selection ……………………………………763
18.5 Design Considerations ………………………………..764
18.6 Conclusions …….766
18.7 Nomenclature ….766
18.8 References ………766
Index ……………………………771

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