Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach 8th Edition by Dee Silverthorn, ISBN-13: 978-0134605197


Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach 8th Edition by Dee Silverthorn, ISBN-13: 978-0134605197

[PDF eBook eTextbook]

  • Publisher: ‎ Pearson; 8th edition (January 3, 2018)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 976 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 0134605195
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0134605197

For courses in Human Physiology.

Move beyond memorization: Prepare students for tomorrow’s challenges.

Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach is the #1 best-selling 1-semester human physiology text world-wide. The 8th Edition engages students in developing a deeper understanding of human physiology by guiding them to think critically and equipping them to solve real-world problems. Updates, such as new Try It activities and detailed teaching suggestions in the new Ready-to-Go Teaching Modules, help students learn and apply mapping skills, graphing skills, and data interpretation skills.

The text reflects Dr. Silverthorn’s active learning style of instruction, and builds upon the thorough integration of “big picture” themes with up-to-date cellular and molecular physiology topics that have always been the foundation of her approach.

Table of Contents:

Human Physiology An Integrated Approach
New to this Edition
Specialty Reviews
The Development and Production Team
Special Thanks
A Work in Progress
Move Beyond Memorization: Prepare for Tomorrow’s Challenges
Contents in Brief
Strategies for Success
Top Ten Ways to Succeed in Classes that Use Active Learning
Word Roots for Physiology
Owner’s Manual
How to Use this Book
Anatomical Positions of the Body
1 Introduction to Physiology
1.1 Physiology Is an Integrative Science
1.2 Function and Mechanism
1.3 Themes in Physiology
Theme 1: Structure and Function Are Closely Related
Molecular Interactions
Theme 2: Living Organisms Need Energy
Theme 3: Information Flow Coordinates Body Functions
Theme 4: Homeostasis Maintains Internal Stability
1.4 Homeostasis
What Is the Body’s Internal Environment?
Homeostasis Depends on Mass Balance
Excretion Clears Substances from the Body
Homeostasis Does Not Mean Equilibrium
1.5 Control Systems and Homeostasis
Local Control Is Restricted to a Tissue
Reflex Control Uses Long-Distance Signaling
Response Loops Begin with a Stimulus
Feedback Loops Modulate the Response Loop
Negative Feedback Loops Are Homeostatic
Positive Feedback Loops Are Not Homeostatic
Feedforward Control Allows the Body to Anticipate Change
Biological Rhythms Result from Changes in a Setpoint
1.6 The Science of Physiology
Good Scientific Experiments Must Be Carefully Designed
The Results of Human Experiments Can Be Difficult to Interpret
Psychological Factors
Ethical Considerations
Human Studies Can Take Many Forms
Chapter Summary
1.1 Physiology Is an Integrative Science
1.2 Function and Mechanism
1.3 Themes in Physiology
1.4 Homeostasis
1.5 Control Systems and Homeostasis
1.6 The Science of Physiology
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
2 Molecular Interactions
2.1 Molecules and Bonds
Most Biomolecules Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Electrons Have Four Important Biological Roles
Covalent Bonds between Atoms Create Molecules
Polar and Nonpolar Molecules
Noncovalent Bonds Facilitate Reversible Interactions
Ionic Bonds
Hydrogen Bonds
Van der Waals Forces
2.2 Noncovalent Interactions
Hydrophilic Interactions Create Biological Solutions
Molecular Shape Is Related to Molecular Function
Hydrogen Ions in Solution Can Alter Molecular Shape
2.3 Protein Interactions
Proteins Are Selective about the Molecules They Bind
Protein-Binding Reactions Are Reversible
Binding Reactions Obey the Law of Mass Action
The Dissociation Constant Indicates Affinity
Multiple Factors Alter Protein Binding
Physical Factors
The Body Regulates the Amount of Protein in Cells
Reaction Rate Can Reach a Maximum
Chemistry Review Quiz
Atoms and Molecules (Fig. 2.5)
Lipids (Fig. 2.1)
Carbohydrates (Fig. 2.2)
Proteins (Fig. 2.3)
Nucleotides (Fig. 2.4)
Chapter Summary
2.1 Molecules and Bonds
2.2 Noncovalent Interactions
2.3 Protein Interactions
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
3 Compartmentation: Cells and ­Tissues
3.1 Functional Compartments of the Body
The Lumens of Some Organs Are Outside the Body
Functionally, the Body Has Three Fluid Compartments
3.2 Biological Membranes
The Cell Membrane Separates Cell from Environment
Membranes Are Mostly Lipid and Protein
Membrane Lipids Create a Hydrophobic Barrier
Membrane Proteins May Be Loosely or Tightly Bound to the Membrane
Membrane Carbohydrates Attach to Both Lipids and Proteins
3.3 Intracellular Compartments
Cells Are Divided into Compartments
The Cytoplasm Includes Cytosol, Inclusions, Fibers, and Organelles
Inclusions Are in Direct Contact with the Cytosol
Cytoplasmic Protein Fibers Come in Three Sizes
Microtubules Form Centrioles, Cilia, and Flagella
The Cytoskeleton Is a Changeable Scaffold
Motor Proteins Create Movement
Organelles Create Compartments for Specialized Functions
The Endoplasmic Reticulum
The Golgi Apparatus
Cytoplasmic Vesicles
The Nucleus Is the Cell’s Control Center
3.4 Tissues of the Body
Extracellular Matrix Has Many Functions
Cell Junctions Hold Cells Together to Form Tissues
Epithelia Provide Protection and Regulate Exchange
Structure of Epithelia
Types of Epithelia
Exchange Epithelia
Transporting Epithelia
Ciliated Epithelia
Protective Epithelia
Secretory Epithelia
Connective Tissues Provide Support and Barriers
Structure of Connective Tissue
Types of Connective Tissue
Muscle and Neural Tissues Are Excitable
3.5 Tissue Remodeling
Apoptosis Is a Tidy Form of Cell Death
Stem Cells Can Create New Specialized Cells
3.6 Organs
Chapter Summary
3.1 Functional Compartments of the Body
3.2 Biological Membranes
3.3 Intracellular Compartments
3.4 Tissues of the Body
3.5 Tissue Remodeling
3.6 Organs
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
4 Energy and Cellular Metabolism
4.1 Energy in Biological Systems
Energy Is Used to Perform Work
Energy Comes in Two Forms: Kinetic and Potential
Energy Can Be Converted from One Form to Another
Thermodynamics Is the Study of Energy Use
4.2 Chemical Reactions
Energy Is Transferred between Molecules during Reactions
Activation Energy Gets Reactions Started
Energy Is Trapped or Released during Reactions
Coupling Endergonic and Exergonic Reactions
Net Free Energy Change Determines Reaction Reversibility
4.3 Enzymes
Enzymes Are Proteins
Reaction Rates Are Variable
Enzymes May Be Activated, Inactivated, or Modulated
Enzymes Lower Activation Energy of Reactions
Enzymatic Reactions Can Be Categorized
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Hydrolysis-Dehydration Reactions
Addition-Subtraction-Exchange Reactions
Ligation Reactions
4.4 Metabolism
Cells Regulate Their Metabolic Pathways
Enzyme Modulation
Reversible Reactions
Compartmentalizing Enzymes in the Cell
Ratio of ATP to ADP
ATP Transfers Energy between Reactions
Catabolic Pathways Produce ATP
One Glucose Molecule Can Yield 30–32 ATP
Anaerobic Metabolism Makes Two ATP
Proteins Are the Key to Cell Function
The Protein “Alphabet”
Unlocking DNA’s Code
DNA Guides the Synthesis of RNA
Alternative Splicing Creates Multiple Proteins from One DNA Sequence
mRNA Translation Links Amino Acids
Protein Sorting Directs Proteins to Their Destination
Proteins Undergo Posttranslational Modification
Protein Folding
Addition of Other Molecules or Groups
Assembly into Polymeric Proteins
Chapter Summary
4.1 Energy in Biological Systems
4.2 Chemical Reactions
4.3 Enzymes
4.4 Metabolism
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
5 Membrane Dynamics
5.1 Osmosis and Tonicity
The Body Is Mostly Water
The Body Is in Osmotic Equilibrium
Osmolarity Describes the Number of Particles in Solution
Comparing Osmolarities of Two Solutions
Tonicity Describes the Volume Change of a Cell
5.2 Transport Processes
Cell Membranes Are Selectively Permeable
5.3 Diffusion
Lipophilic Molecules Cross Membranes by Simple Diffusion
5.4 Protein-Mediated Transport
Membrane Proteins Have Four Major Functions
Structural Proteins
Transport Proteins
Channel Proteins Form Open, Water-Filled Passageways
Carrier Proteins Change Conformation to Move Molecules
Facilitated Diffusion Uses Carrier Proteins
Active Transport Moves Substances against Their Concentration Gradients
Primary Active Transport
Secondary Active Transport
Carrier-Mediated Transport Exhibits Specificity, Competition, and Saturation
5.5 Vesicular Transport
Phagocytosis Creates Vesicles Using the Cytoskeleton
Endocytosis Creates Smaller Vesicles
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Exocytosis Releases Molecules Too Large for Transport Proteins
5.6 Epithelial Transport
Epithelial Transport May Be Paracellular or Transcellular
Transcellular Transport of Glucose Uses Membrane Proteins
Transcytosis Uses Vesicles to Cross an Epithelium
5.7 The Resting Membrane Potential
Electricity Review
The Cell Membrane Enables Separation of Electrical Charge in the Body
All Living Cells Have a Membrane Potential
The Resting Membrane Potential Is Due Mostly to Potassium
Changes in Ion Permeability Change the Membrane Potential
5.8 Integrated Membrane Processes: Insulin Secretion
Chapter Summary
5.1 Osmosis and Tonicity
5.2 Transport Processes
5.3 Diffusion
5.4 Protein-Mediated Transport
5.5 Vesicular Transport
5.6 Epithelial Transport
5.7 The Resting Membrane Potential
5.8 Integrated Membrane Processes: Insulin Secretion
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
6 Communication, Integration, and Homeostasis
6.1 Cell-to-Cell Communication
Gap Junctions Create Cytoplasmic Bridges
Contact-Dependent Signals Require Cell-to-Cell Contact
Local Communication Uses Paracrine and Autocrine Signals
Long-Distance Communication May Be Electrical or Chemical
Cytokines May Act as Both Local and Long-Distance Signals
6.2 Signal Pathways
Receptor Proteins Are Located Inside the Cell or on the Cell Membrane
Membrane Proteins Facilitate Signal Transduction
The Most Rapid Signal Pathways Change Ion Flow through Channels
Most Signal Transduction Uses G Proteins
Many Lipophobic Hormones Use GPCR-cAMP Pathways
G Protein-Coupled Receptors Also Use Lipid-Derived Second Messengers
Catalytic Receptors Have Enzyme Activity
Integrin Receptors Transfer Information from the Extracellular Matrix
6.3 Novel Signal Molecules
Calcium Is an Important Intracellular Signal
Gases Are Ephemeral Signal Molecules
Some Lipids Are Important Paracrine Signals
6.4 Modulation of Signal Pathways
Receptors Exhibit Saturation, Specificity, and Competition
Specificity and Competition: Multiple Ligands for One ­Receptor
Agonists and Antagonists
One Ligand May Have Multiple Receptors
Up and Down-Regulation Enable Cells to Modulate Responses
Cells Must Be Able to Terminate Signal Pathways
Many Diseases and Drugs Target the Proteins of Signal Transduction
6.5 Homeostatic Reflex Pathways
Cannon’s Postulates Describe Regulated Variables and Control Systems
Long-Distance Pathways Maintain Homeostasis
Input Signal
Integrating Center
Output Signals
Control Systems Vary in Their Speed and Specificity
Nature of the Signal
Duration of Action
Coding for Stimulus Intensity
Complex Reflex Control Pathways Have Several Integrating Centers
Chapter Summary
6.1 Cell-to-Cell Communication
6.2 Signal Pathways
6.3 Novel Signal Molecules
6.4 Modulation of Signal Pathways
6.5 Homeostatic Reflex Pathways
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
7 Introduction to the Endocrine System
7.1 Hormones
Hormones Have Been Known Since Ancient Times
What Makes a Chemical a Hormone?
Hormones Are Secreted by a Cell or Group of Cells
Hormones Are Secreted into the Blood
Hormones Are Transported to a Distant Target
Hormones Exert Their Effect at Very Low Concentrations
Hormones Act by Binding to Receptors
Hormone Action Must Be Terminated
7.2 The Classification of Hormones
Most Hormones Are Peptides or Proteins
Peptide Hormone Synthesis, Storage, and Release
Post-Translational Modification of Prohormones
Transport in the Blood and Half-Life of Peptide Hormones
Cellular Mechanism of Action of Peptide Hormones
Steroid Hormones Are Derived from Cholesterol
Steroid Hormone Synthesis and Release
Transport in the Blood and Half-Life of Steroid Hormones
Cellular Mechanism of Action of Steroid Hormones
Some Hormones Are Derived from Single Amino Acids
7.3 Control of Hormone Release
The Endocrine Cell Is the Sensor in Simple Endocrine Reflexes
Many Endocrine Reflexes Involve the Nervous System
Neurohormones Are Secreted into the Blood by Neurons
The Pituitary Gland Is Actually Two Fused Glands
The Posterior Pituitary Stores and Releases Two Neurohormones
The Anterior Pituitary Secretes Six Hormones
A Portal System Connects the Hypothalamus and Anterior Pituitary
Anterior Pituitary Hormones Control Growth, Metabolism, and Reproduction
Feedback Loops Are Different in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Pathway
7.4 Hormone Interactions
In Synergism, the Effect of Interacting Hormones Is More than Additive
A Permissive Hormone Allows Another Hormone to Exert Its Full Effect
Antagonistic Hormones Have Opposing Effects
7.5 Endocrine Pathologies
Hypersecretion Exaggerates a Hormone’s Effects
Hyposecretion Diminishes or Eliminates a Hormone’s Effects
Receptor or Second Messenger Problems Cause Abnormal Tissue Responsiveness
Receptor and Signal Transduction Abnormalities
Diagnosis of Endocrine Pathologies Depends on the Complexity of the Reflex
7.6 Hormone Evolution
Chapter Summary
7.1 Hormones
7.2 The Classification of Hormones
7.3 Control of Hormone Release
7.4 Hormone Interactions
7.5 Endocrine Pathologies
7.6 Hormone Evolution
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
8 Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties
8.1 Organization of the Nervous System
8.2 Cells of the Nervous System
Neurons Carry Electrical Signals
The Cell Body Is the Control Center
Dendrites Receive Incoming Signals
Axons Carry Outgoing Signals
Axonal Transport Is Classified by the Speed at Which Material Moves
Establishing Synapses Depends on Chemical Signals
Glial Cells Provide Support for Neurons
Schwann Cells and Oligodendrocytes
Satellite Cells
Ependymal Cells
Can Stem Cells Repair Damaged Neurons?
8.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons
The Nernst Equation Predicts Membrane Potential for a Single Ion
The GHK Equation Predicts Membrane Potential Using Multiple Ions
Ion Movement Creates Electrical Signals
Gated Channels Control the Ion Permeability of the Neuron
Current Flow Obeys Ohm’s Law
Graded Potentials Reflect Stimulus Strength
Action Potentials Travel Long Distances
Na+ and K+ Move across the Membrane during Action Potentials
Rising Phase of the Action Potential
Falling Phase of the Action Potential
One Action Potential Does Not Alter Ion Concentration Gradients
Axonal Na+ Channels Have Two Gates
Action Potentials Will Not Fire during the Absolute Refractory Period
Action Potentials Are Conducted
Larger Neurons Conduct Action Potentials Faster
Conduction Is Faster in Myelinated Axons
Chemical Factors Alter Electrical Activity
8.4 Cell-To-Cell Communication in the Nervous System
Neurons Communicate at Synapses
Electrical Synapses
Chemical Synapses
Neurons Secrete Chemical Signals
Neurocrine Receptors
Neurotransmitters Are Highly Varied
Amino Acids
Neurotransmitters Are Released from Vesicles
Neurotransmitter Synthesis
Neurotransmitter Release
Termination of Neurotransmitter Activity
Stronger Stimuli Release More Neurotransmitter
8.5 Integration of Neural Information Transfer
Postsynaptic Responses May Be Slow or Fast
Pathways Integrate Information from Multiple Neurons
Temporal Summation
Synaptic Activity Can Be Modified
Long-Term Potentiation Alters Synapses
Disorders of Synaptic Transmission Are Responsible for Many Diseases
Chapter Summary
8.1 Organization of the Nervous System
8.2 Cells of the Nervous System
8.3 Electrical Signals in Neurons
8.4 Cell-to-Cell Communication in the Nervous System
8.5 Integration of Neural Information Transfer
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
9 The Central Nervous System
9.1 Emergent Properties of Neural Networks
9.2 Evolution of Nervous Systems
9.3 Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
The CNS Develops from a Hollow Tube
The CNS Is Divided into Gray Matter and White Matter
Bone and Connective Tissue Support the CNS
The Brain Floats in Cerebrospinal Fluid
The Blood-Brain Barrier Protects the Brain
Neural Tissue Has Special Metabolic Requirements
9.4 The Spinal Cord
9.5 The Brain
The Brain Stem Is the Oldest Part of the Brain
The Cerebellum Coordinates Movement
The Diencephalon Contains the Centers for Homeostasis
The Cerebrum Is the Site of Higher Brain Functions
Gray Matter and White Matter
9.6 Brain Function
The Cerebral Cortex Is Organized into Functional Areas
The Spinal Cord and Brain Integrate Sensory Information
Sensory Information Is Processed into Perception
The Motor System Governs Output from the CNS
The Behavioral State System Modulates Motor Output
Why Do We Sleep?
Physiological Functions Exhibit Circadian Rhythms
Emotion and Motivation Involve Complex Neural Pathways
Moods Are Long-Lasting Emotional States
Learning and Memory Change Synaptic Connections in the Brain
Learning Is the Acquisition of Knowledge
Memory Is the Ability to Retain and Recall Information
Language Is the Most Elaborate Cognitive Behavior
Personality Is a Combination of Experience and Inheritance
Chapter Summary
9.1 Emergent Properties of Neural Networks
9.2 Evolution of Nervous Systems
9.3 Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
9.4 The Spinal Cord
9.5 The Brain
9.6 Brain Function
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
10 Sensory Physiology
10.1 General Properties of Sensory Systems
Receptors Are Sensitive to Particular Forms of Energy
Sensory Transduction Converts Stimuli into Graded Potentials
A Sensory Neuron Has a Receptive Field
The CNS Integrates Sensory Information
Coding and Processing Distinguish Stimulus Properties
Sensory Modality
Location of the Stimulus
Intensity of the Stimulus
Duration of the Stimulus
10.2 Somatic Senses
Pathways for Somatic Perception Project to the Cortex and Cerebellum
Touch Receptors Respond to Many Different Stimuli
Skin Temperature Receptors Are Free Nerve Endings
Nociceptors Initiate Protective Responses
Nociceptor Pathways
Pain Modulation
10.3 Chemoreception: Smell and Taste
Olfaction Is One of the Oldest Senses
Olfactory Pathways
The Olfactory Epithelium
Olfactory Signal Transduction
Taste Is a Combination of Five Basic Sensations
Taste Pathways
Taste Transduction Uses Receptors and Channels
Sweet, Bitter, and Umami Tastes
Sour Taste
Salt Taste
Nontraditional Taste Sensations
10.4 The Ear: Hearing
Hearing Is Our Perception of Sound
Sound Transduction Is a Multistep Process
The Cochlea Is Filled with Fluid
Sounds Are Processed First in the Cochlea
Auditory Pathways Project to the Auditory Cortex
Hearing Loss May Result from Mechanical or Neural Damage
10.5 The Ear: Equilibrium
The Vestibular Apparatus Provides Information about Movement and Position
The Semicircular Canals Sense Rotational Acceleration
The Otolith Organs Sense Linear Acceleration and Head Position
Equilibrium Pathways Project Primarily to the Cerebellum
10.6 The Eye and Vision
The Skull Protects the Eye
Light Enters the Eye through the Cornea
The Lens Focuses Light on the Retina
Phototransduction Occurs at the Retina
Photoreceptors Transduce Light into Electrical Signals
Signal Processing Begins in the Retina
Bipolar Cells
Ganglion Cells
Processing Beyond the Retina
Chapter Summary
10.1 General Properties of Sensory Systems
10.2 Somatic Senses
10.3 Chemoreception: Smell and Taste
10.4 The Ear: Hearing
10.5 The Ear: Equilibrium
10.6 The Eye and Vision
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
11 Efferent Division: Autonomic and Somatic Motor Control
11.1 The Autonomic Division
Autonomic Reflexes Are Important for Homeostasis
Antagonistic Control Is a Hallmark of the Autonomic Division
Autonomic Pathways Have Two Efferent Neurons in Series
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches Originate in Different Regions
The Autonomic Nervous System Uses a Variety of Chemical Signals
Autonomic Pathways Control Smooth and Cardiac Muscle and Glands
Autonomic Neurotransmitters Are Synthesized in the Axon
Autonomic Receptors Have Multiple Subtypes
Sympathetic Receptors
Adrenergic Receptor Pathways
Parasympathetic Pathways
The Adrenal Medulla Secretes Catecholamines
Autonomic Agonists and Antagonists Are Important Tools in Research and Medicine
Primary Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System Are Relatively Uncommon
Summary of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Branches
11.2 The Somatic Motor Division
A Somatic Motor Pathway Consists of One Neuron
The Neuromuscular Junction Contains Nicotinic Receptors
Chapter Summary
11.1 The Autonomic Division
11.2 The Somatic Motor Division
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
12 Muscles
12.1 Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal Muscles Are Composed of Muscle Fibers
Muscle Fiber Anatomy
Myofibrils Are Muscle Fiber Contractile Structures
Muscle Contraction Creates Force
Actin and Myosin Slide Past Each Other during Contraction
Myosin Crossbridges Move Actin Filaments
Myosin ATPase
Calcium Signals Initiate Contraction
Myosin Heads Step along Actin Filaments
The Rigor State
Acetylcholine Initiates Excitation-Contraction Coupling
Timing of E-C Coupling
Skeletal Muscle Contraction Requires a Steady Supply of ATP
Fatigue Has Multiple Causes
Skeletal Muscle Is Classified by Speed and Fatigue Resistance
Resting Fiber Length Affects Tension
Force of Contraction Increases with Summation
A Motor Unit Is One Motor Neuron and Its Muscle Fibers
Contraction Force Depends on the Types and Numbers of Motor Units
12.2 Mechanics Of Body Movement
Isotonic Contractions Move Loads; Isometric Contractions Create Force without Movement
Bones and Muscles around Joints Form Levers and Fulcrums
Muscle Disorders Have Multiple Causes
12.3 Smooth Muscle
Smooth Muscle Is More Variable Than Skeletal Muscle
Smooth Muscle Lacks Sarcomeres
Actin and Myosin
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
Myosin Phosphorylation Controls Contraction
MLCP Controls Ca2+ Sensitivity
Calcium Initiates Smooth Muscle Contraction
Sarcoplasmic Ca2+ Release
Cell Membrane Ca2+ Entry
Some Smooth Muscles Have Unstable Membrane Potentials
Chemical Signals Influence Smooth Muscle Activity
Autonomic Neurotransmitters and Hormones
Paracrine Signals
12.4 Cardiac Muscle
Chapter Summary
12.1 Skeletal Muscle
12.2 Mechanics of Body Movement
12.3 Smooth Muscle
12.4 Cardiac Muscle
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
13 Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement
13.1 Neural Reflexes
Neural Reflex Pathways Can Be Classified in Different Ways
13.2 Autonomic Reflexes
13.3 Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Golgi Tendon Organs Respond to Muscle Tension
Muscle Spindles Respond to Muscle Stretch
Stretch Reflexes and Reciprocal Inhibition Control Movement around a Joint
Flexion Reflexes Pull Limbs Away from Painful Stimuli
13.4 The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Movement Can Be Classified as Reflex, Voluntary, or Rhythmic
The CNS Integrates Movement
Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Reflect Basal Ganglia Function
13.5 Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles
Chapter Summary
13.1 Neural Reflexes
13.2 Autonomic Reflexes
13.3 Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
13.4 The Integrated Control of Body Movement
13.5 Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
14 Cardiovascular Physiology
14.1 Overview of the Cardiovascular System
The Cardiovascular System Transports Materials throughout the Body
The Cardiovascular System Consists of the Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood
14.2 Pressure, Volume, Flow, And Resistance
The Pressure of Fluid in Motion Decreases over Distance
Pressure Changes in Liquids without a Change in Volume
Blood Flows from Higher Pressure to Lower Pressure
Resistance Opposes Flow
Velocity Depends on the Flow Rate and the Cross-Sectional Area
14.3 Cardiac Muscle And The Heart
The Heart Has Four Chambers
Heart Valves Ensure One-Way Flow in the Heart
The Coronary Circulation Supplies Blood to the Heart
Cardiac Muscle Cells Contract without Innervation
Calcium Entry Is a Feature of Cardiac EC Coupling
Cardiac Muscle Contraction Can Be Graded
Myocardial Action Potentials Vary
Myocardial Contractile Cells
Myocardial Autorhythmic Cells
14.4 The Heart as a Pump
Electrical Signals Coordinate Contraction
Pacemakers Set the Heart Rate
The Electrocardiogram Reflects Electrical Activity
Waves of the ECG
The Cardiac Cycle
Interpretation of ECGs
Pathologies and ECGs
The Heart Contracts and Relaxes during a Cardiac Cycle
Pressure-Volume Curves Represent One Cardiac Cycle
Stroke Volume Is the Volume of Blood Pumped per Contraction
Cardiac Output Is a Measure of Cardiac Performance
The Autonomic Division Modulates Heart Rate
Parasympathetic Control
Sympathetic Control
Tonic Control
Multiple Factors Influence Stroke Volume
Length-Tension Relationships
The Frank-Starling Law of the Heart
Stroke Volume and Venous Return
Contractility Is Controlled by the Nervous and Endocrine Systems
EDV and Arterial Blood Pressure Determine Afterload
Chapter Summary
14.1 Overview of the Cardiovascular System
14.2 Pressure, Volume, Flow, and Resistance
14.3 Cardiac Muscle and the Heart
14.4 The Heart as a Pump
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
15 Blood Flow and the Control of Blood Pressure
15.1 The Blood Vessels
Blood Vessels Contain Vascular Smooth Muscle
Arteries and Arterioles Carry Blood Away from the Heart
Exchange Takes Place in the Capillaries
Blood Flow Converges in the Venules and Veins
Angiogenesis Creates New Blood Vessels
15.2 Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure Is Highest in Arteries and Lowest in Veins
Arterial Blood Pressure Reflects the Driving Pressure for Blood Flow
Blood Pressure Is Estimated by Sphygmomanometry
Cardiac Output and Peripheral Resistance Determine Mean Arterial Pressure
Changes in Blood Volume Affect Blood Pressure
15.3 Resistance in the Arterioles
Myogenic Autoregulation Adjusts Blood Flow
Paracrine Signals Influence Vascular Smooth Muscle
The Sympathetic Branch Controls Most Vascular Smooth Muscle
15.4 Distribution of Blood to the Tissues
Cerebral Blood Flow Stays Nearly Constant
Coronary Blood Flow Parallels the Work of the Heart
15.5 Regulation of Cardiovascular Function
The Baroreceptor Reflex Controls Blood Pressure
Orthostatic Hypotension Triggers the Baroreceptor Reflex
Other Systems Influence Cardiovascular Function
15.6 Exchange at the Capillaries
Velocity of Blood Flow Is Lowest in the Capillaries
Most Capillary Exchange Takes Place by Diffusion and Transcytosis
Capillary Filtration and Absorption Take Place by Bulk Flow
15.7 The Lymphatic System
Edema Results from Alterations in Capillary Exchange
15.8 Cardiovascular Disease
Risk Factors for CVD Include Smoking and Obesity
Atherosclerosis Is an Inflammatory Process
Hypertension Represents a Failure of Homeostasis
Chapter Summary
15.1 The Blood Vessels
15.2 Blood Pressure
15.3 Resistance in the Arterioles
15.4 Distributionof Blood to the Tissues
15.5 Regulation of Cardiovascular Function
15.6 Exchange at the Capillaries
15.7 The Lymphatic System
15.8 Cardiovascular Disease
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
16 Blood
16.1 Plasma and the Cellular Elements of Blood
Plasma Is Extracellular Matrix
Cellular Elements Include RBCs, WBCs, and Platelets
16.2 Blood Cell Production
Blood Cells Are Produced in the Bone Marrow
Hematopoiesis Is Controlled by Cytokines
Colony-Stimulating Factors Regulate Leukopoiesis
Thrombopoietin Regulates Platelet Production
Erythropoietin Regulates RBC Production
16.3 Red Blood Cells
Mature RBCs Lack a Nucleus
Hemoglobin Synthesis Requires Iron
RBCs Live about Four Months
RBC Disorders Decrease Oxygen Transport
16.4 Platelets
16.5 Hemostasis and Coagulation
Hemostasis Prevents Blood Loss from Damaged Vessels
Platelet Activation Begins the Clotting Process
Coagulation Converts a Platelet Plug into a Clot
Anticoagulants Prevent Coagulation
Chapter Summary
16.1 Plasma and the Cellular Elements of Blood
16.2 Blood Cell Production
16.3 Red Blood Cells
16.4 Platelets
16.5 Hemostasis and Coagulation
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
17 Mechanics of Breathing
17.1 The Respiratory System
Bones and Muscles of the Thorax Surround the Lungs
Pleural Sacs Enclose the Lungs
Airways Connect Lungs to the External Environment
The Airways Warm, Humidify, and Filter Inspired Air
Alveoli Are the Site of Gas Exchange
Pulmonary Circulation Is High-Flow, Low-Pressure
17.2 Gas Laws
Air Is a Mixture of Gases
Gases Move Down Pressure Gradients
Boyle’s Law Describes Pressure-Volume Relationships
17.3 Ventilation
Lung Volumes Change during Ventilation
Lung Volumes
“Breathe quietly.”
“Now, at the end of a quiet inspiration, take in as much additional air as you possibly can.”
“Now stop at the end of a normal exhalation, then exhale as much air as you possibly can.”
Lung Capacities
During Ventilation, Air Flows because of Pressure Gradients
Inspiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Decreases
Time 0
Time 0–2 sec: Inspiration
Expiration Occurs When Alveolar Pressure Increases
Time 2–4 sec: Expiration
Time 4 sec.
Intrapleural Pressure Changes during Ventilation
Subatmospheric Intrapleural Pressure
Intrapleural Pressure during the Respiratory Cycle
Lung Compliance and Elastance May Change in Disease States
Surfactant Decreases the Work of Breathing
Airway Diameter Determines Airway Resistance
Rate and Depth of Breathing Determine the Efficiency of Breathing
Alveolar Gas Composition Varies Little during Normal Breathing
Ventilation and Alveolar Blood Flow Are Matched
Auscultation and Spirometry Assess Pulmonary Function
Obstructive Lung Disease
Restrictive Lung Disease
Forced Vital Capacity Test
Chapter Summary
17.1 The Respiratory System
17.2 Gas Laws
17.3 Ventilation
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
18 Gas Exchange and Transport
18.1 Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues
Lower Alveolar P02 Decreases Oxygen Uptake
Composition of the Inspired Air
Alveolar Ventilation
Diffusion Problems Cause Hypoxia
Surface Area
Diffusion Barrier Permeability
Diffusion Distance
Gas Solubility Affects Diffusion
18.2 Gas Transport in the Blood
Hemoglobin Binds to Oxygen
Oxygen Binding Obeys the Law of Mass Action
Hemoglobin Transports Most Oxygen to the Tissues
PO2 Determines Oxygen-Hb Binding
Oxygen Binding Is Expressed as a Percentage
Several Factors Affect O2-Hb Binding
Carbon Dioxide Is Transported in Three Ways
CO2 and Bicarbonate Ions
Hemoglobin and H+
Hemoglobin and CO2
CO2 Removal at the Lungs
18.3 Regulation of Ventilation
Neurons in the Medulla Control Breathing
CO2 Oxygen, and pH Influence Ventilation
Peripheral Chemoreceptors
Central Chemoreceptors
Protective Reflexes Guard the Lungs
Higher Brain Centers Affect Patterns of Ventilation
Chapter Summary
18.1 Gas Exchange in the Lungs and Tissues
18.2 Gas Transport in the Blood
18.3 Regulation of Ventilation
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
19 The Kidneys
19.1 Functions of the Kidneys
19.2 Anatomy of the Urinary System
The Urinary System Consists of Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra
The Kidneys
The Nephron Is the Functional Unit of the Kidney
Vascular Elements of the Kidney
Tubular Elements of the Kidney
19.3 Overview of Kidney Function
Kidneys Filter, Reabsorb, and Secrete
The Nephron Modifies Fluid Volume and Osmolarity
19.4 Filtration
The Renal Corpuscle Contains Filtration Barriers
Capillary Pressure Causes Filtration
GFR Is Relatively Constant
GFR Is Subject to Autoregulation
Myogenic Response
Tubuloglomerular Feedback
Hormones and Autonomic Neurons Also Influence GFR
19.5 Reabsorption
Reabsorption May Be Active or Passive
Active Transport of Na+
Secondary Active Transport: Symport with Na+
Passive Reabsorption: Urea
Endocytosis: Plasma Proteins
Renal Transport Can Reach Saturation
Peritubular Capillary Pressures Favor Reabsorption
19.6 Secretion
Competition Decreases Penicillin Secretion
19.7 Excretion
Clearance Is a Noninvasive Way to Measure GFR
Clearance Helps Us Determine Renal Handling
PAH Clearance and Renal Plasma Flow
19.8 Micturition
Chapter Summary
19.1 Functions of the Kidneys
19.2 Anatomy of the Urinary System
19.3 Overview of Kidney Function
19.4 Filtration
19.5 Reabsorption
19.6 Secretion
19.7 Excretion
19.8 Micturition
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
20 Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
20.1 Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis
ECF Osmolarity Affects Cell Volume
Multiple Systems Integrate Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
20.2 Water Balance
Daily Water Intake and Excretion Are Balanced
The Kidneys Conserve Water
The Renal Medulla Creates Concentrated Urine
Vasopressin Controls Water Reabsorption
Vasopressin and Aquaporins
Blood Volume and Osmolarity Activate Osmoreceptors
The Loop of Henle Is a Countercurrent Multiplier
Countercurrent Exchange Systems
The Renal Countercurrent Multiplier
The Vasa Recta Removes Water
Urea Increases Interstitial Osmolarity
20.3 Sodium Balance and ECF Volume
Aldosterone Controls Sodium Balance
Low Blood Pressure Stimulates Aldosterone Secretion
The Renin-Angiotensin Pathway
ANG II Has Many Effects
Natriuretic Peptides Promote Na+ and Water Excretion
20.4 Potassium Balance
20.5 Behavioral Mechanisms in Salt and Water Balance
Drinking Replaces Fluid Loss
Low Na+ Stimulates Salt Appetite
Avoidance Behaviors Help Prevent Dehydration
20.6 Integrated Control of Volume, Osmolarity, and Blood Pressure
Osmolarity and Volume Can Change Independently
Dehydration Triggers Homeostatic Responses
Kidneys Assist in Blood Pressure Homeostasis
Endocrine Problems Disrupt Fluid Balance
20.7 Acid-Base Balance
pH Changes Can Denature Proteins
Acids and Bases in the Body Come from Many Sources
Acid Input
Base Input
pH Homeostasis Depends on Buffers, Lungs, and Kidneys
Buffer Systems Include Proteins, Phosphate Ions, and HCO3–
Ventilation Can Compensate for pH Disturbances
Ventilation Reflexes
Kidneys Use Ammonia and Phosphate Buffers
The Proximal Tubule Secretes H+ and Reabsorbs HCO3–
The Distal Nephron Controls Acid Excretion
Acid-Base Disturbances May Be Respiratory or Metabolic
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Chapter Summary
20.1 Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis
20.2 Water Balance
20.3 Sodium Balance and ECF Volume
20.4 Potassium Balance
20.5 Behavioral Mechanisms in Salt and Water Balance
20.6 Integrated Control of Volume, Osmolarity, and Blood Pressure
20.7 Acid-Base Balance
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
21 The Digestive System
21.1 Anatomy of the Digestive System
The Digestive System Is a Tube
The GI Tract Wall Has Four Layers
Muscularis Externa
21.2 Digestive Function and Processes
We Secrete More Fluid than We Ingest
Digestive Enzymes
Digestion and Absorption Make Food Usable
Motility: GI Smooth Muscle Contracts Spontaneously
GI Smooth Muscle Exhibits Different Patterns of Contraction
21.3 Regulation of GI Function
The Enteric Nervous System Can Act Independently
Short Reflexes Integrate in the Enteric Nervous System
Long Reflexes Integrate in the CNS
GI Peptides Include Hormones, Neuropeptides, and Cytokines
GI Hormones
GI Hormone Families
21.4 Integrated Function: The Cephalic Phase
Chemical and Mechanical Digestion Begins in the Mouth
Saliva Is an Exocrine Secretion
Swallowing Moves Food from Mouth to Stomach
21.5 Integrated Function: The Gastric Phase
The Stomach Stores Food
Gastric Secretions Protect and Digest
Gastrin Secretion
Acid Secretion
Enzyme Secretion
Paracrine Secretions
The Stomach Balances Digestion and Defense
21.6 Integrated Function: The Intestinal Phase
Intestinal Secretions Promote Digestion
Isotonic NaCl Secretion
The Pancreas Secretes Enzymes and Bicarbonate
Enzyme Secretion
Bicarbonate Secretion
The Liver Secretes Bile
Most Digestion Occurs in the Small Intestine
Bile Salts Facilitate Fat Digestion
Fat Absorption
Carbohydrates Are Absorbed as Monosaccharides
Lactose Intolerance
Carbohydrate Absorption
Proteins Are Digested into Small Peptides and Amino Acids
Peptide Absorption
Some Larger Peptides Can Be Absorbed Intact
Intestinal Na Transport Experiment
Nucleic Acids Are Digested into Bases and Monosaccharides
The Intestine Absorbs Vitamins and Minerals
Iron and Calcium
The Intestine Absorbs Ions and Water
Regulation of the Intestinal Phase
The Large Intestine Concentrates Waste
Motility in the Large Intestine
Digestion and Absorption in the Large Intestine
Diarrhea Can Cause Dehydration
21.7 Immune Functions of the GI Tract
M Cells Sample Gut Contents
Vomiting Is a Protective Reflex
Chapter Summary
21.1 Anatomy of the Digestive System
21.2 Digestive Function and Processes
21.3 Regulation of GI Function
21.4 Integrated Function: The Cephalic Phase
21.5 Integrated Function: The Gastric Phase
21.6 Integrated Function: The Intestinal Phase
21.7 Immune Functions of the GI Tract
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
22 Metabolism and Energy Balance
22.1 Appetite and Satiety
22.2 Energy Balance
Energy Input Equals Energy Output
Oxygen Consumption Reflects Energy Use
Many Factors Influence Metabolic Rate
Energy Is Stored in Fat and Glycogen
22.3 Metabolism
Ingested Energy May Be Used or Stored
Enzymes Control the Direction of Metabolism
22.4 Fed-State Metabolism
Carbohydrates Make ATP
Glucose Storage
Amino Acids Make Proteins
Fats Store Energy
Lipid Synthesis
Plasma Cholesterol Predicts Heart Disease
22.5 Fasted-State Metabolism
Glycogen Converts to Glucose
Proteins Can Be Used to Make ATP
Lipids Store More Energy than Glucose or Protein
22.6 Homeostatic Control of Metabolism
The Pancreas Secretes Insulin and Glucagon
The Insulin-to-Glucagon Ratio Regulates Metabolism
Insulin Is the Dominant Hormone of the Fed State
Insulin Promotes Anabolism
Glucagon Is Dominant in the Fasted State
Diabetes Mellitus Is a Family of Diseases
Diagnosing Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetics Are Prone to Ketoacidosis
Type 2 Diabetics Often Have Elevated Insulin Levels
Metabolic Syndrome Links Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
Multiple Hormones Influence Metabolism
22.7 Regulation of Body Temperature
Body Temperature Balances Heat Production, Gain, and Loss
Heat Gain and Loss Are Balanced
Body Temperature Is Homeostatically Regulated
Alterations in Cutaneous Blood Flow Conserve or Release Heat
Sweat Contributes to Heat Loss
Movement and Metabolism Produce Heat
The Body’s Thermostat Can Be Reset
Chapter Summary
22.1 Appetite and Satiety
22.2 Energy Balance
22.3 Metabolism
22.4 Fed-State Metabolism
22.5 Fasted-State Metabolism
22.6 Homeostatic Control of Metabolism
22.7 Regulation of Body Temperature
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
23 Endocrine Control of Growth and Metabolism
23.1 Review Of Endocrine Principles
23.2 Adrenal Glucocorticoids
The Adrenal Cortex Secretes Steroid Hormones
Cortisol Secretion Is Controlled by ACTH
Cortisol Is Essential for Life
Cortisol Is a Useful Therapeutic Drug
Cortisol Pathologies Result from Too Much or Too Little Hormone
CRH and ACTH Have Additional Physiological Functions
CRH Family
POMC and Melanocortins
23.3 Thyroid Hormones
Thyroid Hormones Contain Iodine
TSH Controls the Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Pathologies Affect Quality of Life
23.4 Growth Hormone
Growth Hormone Is Anabolic
Feedback Control of GH Secretion
Growth Hormone Is Essential for Normal Growth
Genetically Engineered hGH Raises Ethical Questions
23.5 Tissue and Bone Growth
Tissue Growth Requires Hormones and Paracrine Factors
Bone Growth Requires Adequate Dietary Calcium
Control of Bone Growth
23.6 Calcium Balance
Plasma Calcium Is Closely Regulated
Three Hormones Control Calcium Balance
Parathyroid Hormone
Multiple Factors Control Bone Remodeling
Control of Bone Remodeling
Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis Are Linked
Osteoporosis Is a Disease of Bone Loss
Chapter Summary
23.1 Review of Endocrine Principles
23.2 Adrenal Glucocorticoids
23.3 Thyroid Hormones
23.4 Growth Hormone
23.5 Tissue and Bone Growth
23.6 Calcium Balance
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
24 The Immune System
24.1 Overview
24.2 Anatomy of the Immune System
Lymphoid Tissues Are Everywhere
Leukocytes Are the Immune Cells
Immune Cell Names
Basophils and Mast Cells
Monocytes and Macrophages
Dendritic Cells
24.3 Development of Immune Cells
Lymphocytes Mediate the Adaptive Immune Response
The Immune System Must Recognize “Self”
Early Pathogen Exposure Strengthens Immunity
24.4 Molecules of the Innate Immune Response
Many Molecules of the Innate Immune Response Are Always Present
Acute-Phase Proteins
Complement Proteins
24.5 Antigen Presentation and ­Recognition Molecules
Major Histocompatibility Complexes, MHC
Antigen-Recognition Molecules
B Lymphocytes Produce Antibodies
Antibody Proteins
Classes of Antibodies
24.6 Pathogens of the Human Body
Bacteria and Viruses Require Different Defense Mechanisms
Viruses Can Only Replicate inside Host Cells
24.7 The Immune Response
Barriers Are the Body’s First Line of Defense
Innate Immunity Provides Nonspecific Responses
NK Cells Kill Virus-Infected Cells
Cytokines and the Inflammatory Response
Antigen-Presenting Cells Bridge Innate and Adaptive Responses
Adaptive Immunity Creates Antigen-Specific Responses
Clonal Expansion
B Cells and Plasma Cells
Antibody Functions
Active and Passive Immunity
T Lymphocytes and T Cell Receptors
Cytotoxic T Cells
Helper T (TH) Cells
Regulatory T Cells (Tregs)
24.8 Integrated Immune Responses
Bacterial Invasion Causes Inflammation
Viral Infections Require Intracellular Defense
Antibodies and Viruses
Specific Antigens Trigger Allergic Responses
MHC Proteins Allow Recognition of Foreign Tissue
ABO Blood Groups
Rh Blood Groups
24.9 Immune System Pathologies
Autoimmune Disease Results from Antibodies against Self-Antigen
Immune Surveillance Removes Abnormal Cells
24.10 Neuro-Endocrine-Immune Interactions
Stress Alters Immune System Function
Modern Medicine Includes Mind-Body Therapeutics
Chapter Summary
24.1 Overview
24.2 Anatomy of the Immune System
24.3 Development of Immune Cells
24.4 Molecules of the Innate Immune Response
24.5 Antigen Presentation and Recognition Molecules
24.6 Pathogens of the Human Body
24.7 The Immune Response
24.8 Integrated Immune Responses
24.9 Immune System Pathologies
24.10 Neuro-Endocrine-Immune Interactions
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
25 Integrative Physiology III: Exercise
25.1 Metabolism and Exercise
Hormones Regulate Metabolism during Exercise
Oxygen Consumption Is Related to Exercise Intensity
Several Factors Limit Exercise
25.2 Ventilatory Responses to Exercise
25.3 Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
Cardiac Output Increases during Exercise
Muscle Blood Flow Increases during Exercise
Blood Pressure Rises Slightly during Exercise
The Baroreceptor Reflex Adjusts to Exercise
25.4 Feedforward Responses to Exercise
25.5 Temperature Regulation During Exercise
25.6 Exercise and Health
Exercise Lowers the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus May Improve with Exercise
Stress and the Immune System May Be Influenced by Exercise
Chapter Summary
25.1 Metabolism and Exercise
25.2 Ventilatory Responses to Exercise
25.3 Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise
25.4 Feedforward Responses to Exercise
25.5 Temperature Regulation during Exercise
25.6 Exercise and Health
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
26 Reproduction and Development
26.1 Sex Determination
Sex Chromosomes Determine Genetic Sex
Sexual Differentiation Occurs Early in Development
Male Embryonic Development
Female Embryonic Development
26.2 Basic Patterns of Reproduction
Gametogenesis Begins in Utero
Male Gametogenesis
Female Gametogenesis
The Brain Directs Reproduction
Control Pathways
Feedback Pathways
Pulsatile GnRH Release
Environmental Factors Influence Reproduction
26.3 Male Reproduction
Testes Produce Sperm and Hormones
Seminiferous Tubules
Sertoli Cells
Interstitial Cells
Sperm Production
Spermatogenesis Requires Gonadotropins and Testosterone
Male Accessory Glands Contribute Secretions to Semen
Androgens Influence Secondary Sex Characteristics
26.4 Female Reproduction
The Ovary Produces Eggs and Hormones
A Menstrual Cycle Lasts about One Month
Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle Is Complex
Early Follicular Phase
Mid- to Late Follicular Phase
Early to Mid-Luteal Phase
Late Luteal Phase and Menstruation
Hormones Influence Female Secondary Sex Characteristics
26.5 Procreation
The Human Sexual Response Has Four Phases
The Male Sex Act Includes Erection and Ejaculation
Sexual Dysfunction Affects Males and Females
Contraceptives Are Designed to Prevent Pregnancy
Barrier Methods
Implantation Prevention
Hormonal Treatments
Infertility Is the Inability to Conceive
26.6 Pregnancy and Parturition
Fertilization Requires Capacitation
The Developing Embryo Implants in the Endometrium
The Placenta Secretes Hormones During Pregnancy
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (hCS)
Estrogen and Progesterone
Pregnancy Ends with Labor and Delivery
The Mammary Glands Secrete Milk During Lactation
26.7 Growth and Aging
Puberty Marks the Beginning of the Reproductive Years
Menopause and Andropause Are a Consequence of Aging
Chapter Summary
26.1 Sex Determination
26.2 Basic Patterns of Reproduction
26.3 Male Reproduction
26.4 Female Reproduction
26.5 Procreation
26.6 Pregnancy and Parturition
26.7 Growth and Aging
Review Questions
Level One Reviewing Facts and Terms
Level Two Reviewing Concepts
Level Three Problem Solving
Level Four Quantitative Problems
Appendix A | Answers
Appendix B | Physics and Math
Basic Units of Measurement
Bioelectrical Principles
Osmotic Principles
Relevant Behaviors of Gases and Liquids
Review of Logarithms
Appendix C | Genetics
What Is DNA?
Functions of DNA
Cell Division
Mitosis Creates Two Identical Daughter Cells
DNA Replication
DNA Replication Is Semi-Conservative
Mutations Change the Sequence of DNA
Oncogenes and Cancer
Photo Credits
Front Matter

DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN studied biology as an undergraduate at Newcomb College of Tulane University, where she did research on cockroaches. For graduate school, she switched to studying crabs and received a Ph.D. in marine science from the Belle W. Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences at the University of South Carolina. Her research interest is epithelial transport, and most recently work in her laboratory has focused on transport properties of the chick allantoic membrane.

Her teaching career started in the Physiology Department at the Medical University of South Carolina but over the years she has taught a wide range of students, from medical and college students to those still preparing for higher education. At the University of Texas–Austin, she teaches physiology in both lecture and laboratory settings, and instructs graduate students on developing teaching skills in the life sciences. In 2015 she joined the faculty of the new UT-Austin Dell Medical School. She has received numerous teaching awards and honors, including a 2011 UT System Regents’ Outstanding Teaching Award, the 2009 Outstanding Undergraduate Science Teacher Award from the Society for College Science Teachers, the American Physiological Society’s Claude Bernard Distinguished Lecturer and Arthur C. Guyton Physiology Educator of the Year, and multiple awards from UT–Austin, including the Burnt Orange Apple Award.

The first edition of her textbook won the 1998 Robert W. Hamilton Author Award for best textbook published in 1997–1998 by a University of Texas faculty member. Dee was the president of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society in 2012–2013, has served as editor-in-chief of Advances in Physiology Education, and is currently chair of the American Physiological Society Book Committee. She works with members of the International Union of Physiological Sciences to improve physiology education in developing countries, and this book has been translated into seven languages. Her free time is spent creating multimedia fiber art and enjoying the Texas hill country with her husband, Andy, and their dogs.

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