**Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications 4th Edition by Yunus Cengel, ISBN-13: 978-1259696534**

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- Publisher: McGraw Hill; 4th edition (February 27, 2017)
- Language: English
- 1056 pages
- ISBN-10: 1259696537
- ISBN-13: 978-1259696534

Cengel and Cimbala’s * Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, *communicates directly with tomorrow’s engineers in a simple yet precise manner, while covering the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the

*, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented – in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively.*

**physics****Table of Contents:**

Cover

Title

Copyright

Brief Contents

Contents

Preface

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

1–1 Introduction

What Is a Fluid?

Application Areas of Fluid Mechanics

1–2 A Brief History of Fluid Mechanics

1–3 The No-Slip Condition

1–4 Classification of Fluid Flows

Viscous versus Inviscid Regions of Flow

Internal versus External Flow

Compressible versus Incompressible Flow

Laminar versus Turbulent Flow

Natural (or Unforced) versus Forced Flow

Steady versus Unsteady Flow

One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Flows

Uniform versus Nonuniform Flow

1–5 System and Control Volume

1–6 Importance of Dimensions and Units

Some SI and English Units

Dimensional Homogeneity

Unity Conversion Ratios

1–7 Modeling in Engineering

1–8 Problem-Solving Technique

Step 1: Problem Statement

Step 2: Schematic

Step 3: Assumptions and Approximations

Step 4: Physical Laws

Step 5: Properties

Step 6: Calculations

Step 7: Reasoning, Verification, and Discussion

1–9 Engineering Software Packages

Equation Solvers

CFD Software

1–10 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Digits

Application Spotlight: What Nuclear Blasts and Raindrops Have in Common

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER TWO PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

2–1 Introduction

Continuum

2–2 Density and Specific Gravity

Density of Ideal Gases

2–3 Vapor Pressure and Cavitation

2–4 Energy and Specific Heats

2–5 Compressibility and Speed of Sound

Coefficient of Compressibility

Coefficient of Volume Expansion

Speed of Sound and Mach Number

2–6 Viscosity

2–7 Surface Tension and Capillary Effect

Capillary Effect

Summary

Application Spotlight: Cavitation

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER THREE PRESSURE AND FLUID STATICS

3–1 Pressure

Pressure at a Point

Variation of Pressure with Depth

3–2 Pressure Measurement Devices

The Barometer

The Manometer

Other Pressure Measurement Devices

3–3 Introduction to Fluid Statics

3–4 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane Surfaces

Special Case: Submerged Rectangular Plate

3–5 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Curved Surfaces

3–6 Buoyancy and Stability

Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

3–7 Fluids in Rigid-Body Motion

Special Case 1: Fluids at Rest

Special Case 2: Free Fall of a Fluid Body

Acceleration on a Straight Path

Rotation in a Cylindrical Container

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER FOUR FLUID KINEMATICS

4–1 Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions

Acceleration Field

Material Derivative

4–2 Flow Patterns and Flow Visualization

Streamlines and Streamtubes

Pathlines

Streaklines

Timelines

Refractive Flow Visualization Techniques

Surface Flow Visualization Techniques

4–3 Plots of Fluid Flow Data

Profile Plots

Vector Plots

Contour Plots

4–4 Other Kinematic Descriptions

Types of Motion or Deformation of Fluid Elements

4–5 Vorticity and Rotationality

Comparison of Two Circular Flows

4–6 The Reynolds Transport Theorem

Alternate Derivation of the Reynolds Transport Theorem

Relationship between Material Derivative and RTT

Summary

Application Spotlight: Fluidic Actuators

Application Spotlight: Smelling Food; the Human Airway

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER FIVE BERNOULLI AND ENERGY EQUATIONS

5–1 Introduction

Conservation of Mass

The Linear Momentum Equation

Conservation of Energy

5–2 Conservation of Mass

Mass and Volume Flow Rates

Conservation of Mass Principle

Moving or Deforming Control Volumes

Mass Balance for Steady-Flow Processes

Special Case: Incompressible Flow

5–3 Mechanical Energy and Efficiency

5–4 The Bernoulli Equation

Acceleration of a Fluid Particle

Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation

Force Balance across Streamlines

Unsteady, Compressible Flow

Static, Dynamic, and Stagnation Pressures

Limitations on the Use of the Bernoulli Equation

Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) and Energy Grade Line (EGL)

Applications of the Bernoulli Equation

5–5 General Energy Equation

Energy Transfer by Heat, Q

Energy Transfer by Work, W

5–6 Energy Analysis of Steady Flows

Special Case: Incompressible Flow with No Mechanical Work Devices and Negligible Friction

Kinetic Energy Correction Factor, α

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER SIX MOMENTUM ANALYSIS OF FLOW SYSTEMS

6–1 Newton’s Laws

6–2 Choosing a Control Volume

6–3 Forces Acting on a Control Volume

6–4 The Linear Momentum Equation

Special Cases

Momentum-Flux Correction Factor, β

Steady Flow

Flow with No External Forces

6–5 Review of Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum

6–6 The Angular Momentum Equation

Special Cases

Flow with No External Moments

Radial-Flow Devices

Application Spotlight: Manta Ray Swimming

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER SEVEN DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND MODELING

7–1 Dimensions and Units

7–2 Dimensional Homogeneity

Nondimensionalization of Equations

7–3 Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

7–4 The Method of Repeating Variables and the Buckingham Pi Theorem

Historical Spotlight: Persons Honored by Nondimensional Parameters

7–5 Experimental Testing, Modeling, and Incomplete Similarity

Setup of an Experiment and Correlation of Experimental Data

Incomplete Similarity

Wind Tunnel Testing

Flows with Free Surfaces

Application Spotlight: How a Fly Flies

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER EIGHT INTERNAL FLOW

8–1 Introduction

8–2 Laminar and Turbulent Flows

Reynolds Number

8–3 The Entrance Region

Entry Lengths

8–4 Laminar Flow in Pipes

Pressure Drop and Head Loss

Effect of Gravity on Velocity and Flow Rate in Laminar Flow

Laminar Flow in Noncircular Pipes

8–5 Turbulent Flow in Pipes

Turbulent Shear Stress

Turbulent Velocity Profile

The Moody Chart and Its Associated Equations

Types of Fluid Flow Problems

8–6 Minor Losses

8–7 Piping Networks and Pump Selection

Series and Parallel Pipes

Piping Systems with Pumps and Turbines

8–8 Flow Rate and Velocity Measurement

Pitot and Pitot-Static Probes

Obstruction Flowmeters: Orifice, Venturi, and Nozzle Meters

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

Turbine Flowmeters

Variable-Area Flowmeters (Rotameters)

Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Electromagnetic Flowmeters

Vortex Flowmeters

Thermal (Hot-Wire and Hot-Film) Anemometers

Laser Doppler Velocimetry

Particle Image Velocimetry

Introduction to Biofluid Mechanics

Application Spotlight: PIV Applied to Cardiac Flow

Application Spotlight: Multicolor Particle Shadow Velocimetry/Accelerometry

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER NINE DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW

9–1 Introduction

9–2 Conservation of Mass—The Continuity Equation

Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem

Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume

Alternative Form of the Continuity Equation

Continuity Equation in Cylindrical Coordinates

Special Cases of the Continuity Equation

9–3 The Stream Function

The Stream Function in Cartesian Coordinates

The Stream Function in Cylindrical Coordinates

The Compressible Stream Function

9–4 The Differential Linear Momentum Equation—Cauchy’s Equation

Derivation Using the Divergence Theorem

Derivation Using an Infinitesimal Control Volume

Alternative Form of Cauchy’s Equation

Derivation Using Newton’s Second Law

9–5 The Navier–Stokes Equation

Introduction

Newtonian versus Non-Newtonian Fluids

Derivation of the Navier–Stokes Equation for Incompressible, Isothermal Flow

Continuity and Navier–Stokes Equations in Cartesian Coordinates

Continuity and Navier–Stokes Equations in Cylindrical Coordinates

9–6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow Problems

Calculation of the Pressure Field for a Known Velocity Field

Exact Solutions of the Continuity and Navier–Stokes Equations

Differential Analysis of Biofluid Mechanics Flows

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Application Spotlight: The No-Slip Boundary Condition

Problems

CHAPTER TEN APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS OF THE NAVIER–STOKES EQUATION

10–1 Introduction

10–2 Nondimensionalized Equations of Motion

10–3 The Creeping Flow Approximation

Drag on a Sphere in Creeping Flow

10–4 Approximation for Inviscid Regions of Flow

Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Inviscid Regions of Flow

10–5 The Irrotational Flow Approximation

Continuity Equation

Momentum Equation

Derivation of the Bernoulli Equation in Irrotational Regions of Flow

Two-Dimensional Irrotational Regions of Flow

Superposition in Irrotational Regions of Flow

Elementary Planar Irrotational Flows

Irrotational Flows Formed by Superposition

10–6 The Boundary Layer Approximation

The Boundary Layer Equations

The Boundary Layer Procedure

Displacement Thickness

Momentum Thickness

Turbulent Flat Plate Boundary Layer

Boundary Layers with Pressure Gradients

The Momentum Integral Technique for Boundary Layers

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Application Spotlight: Droplet Formation

Problems

CHAPTER ELEVEN EXTERNAL FLOW: DRAG AND LIFT

11–1 Introduction

11–2 Drag and Lift

11–3 Friction and Pressure Drag

Reducing Drag by Streamlining

Flow Separation

11–4 Drag Coefficients of Common Geometries

Biological Systems and Drag

Drag Coefficients of Vehicles

Superposition

11–5 Parallel Flow over Flat Plates

Friction Coefficient

11–6 Flow over Cylinders and Spheres

Effect of Surface Roughness

11–7 Lift

Finite-Span Wings and Induced Drag

Lift Generated by Spinning

Flying in Nature!

Summary

Application Spotlight: Drag Reduction

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER TWELVE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW

12–1 Stagnation Properties

12–2 One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases

12–3 Isentropic Flow through Nozzles

Converging Nozzles

Converging–Diverging Nozzles

12–4 Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Normal Shocks

Oblique Shocks

Prandtl–Meyer Expansion Waves

12–5 Duct Flow with Heat Transfer and Negligible Friction (Rayleigh Flow)

Property Relations for Rayleigh Flow

Choked Rayleigh Flow

12–6 Adiabatic Duct Flow with Friction (Fanno Flow)

Property Relations for Fanno Flow

Choked Fanno Flow

Application Spotlight: Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER THIRTEEN OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW

13–1 Classification of Open-Channel Flows

Uniform and Varied Flows

Laminar and Turbulent Flows in Channels

13–2 Froude Number and Wave Speed

Speed of Surface Waves

13–3 Specific Energy

13–4 Conservation of Mass and Energy Equations

13–5 Uniform Flow in Channels

Critical Uniform Flow

Superposition Method for Nonuniform Perimeters

13–6 Best Hydraulic Cross Sections

Rectangular Channels

Trapezoidal Channels

13–7 Gradually Varied Flow

Liquid Surface Profiles in Open Channels, y(x)

Some Representative Surface Profiles

Numerical Solution of Surface Profile

13–8 Rapidly Varied Flow and the Hydraulic Jump

13–9 Flow Control and Measurement

Underflow Gates

Overflow Gates

Application Spotlight: Bridge Scour

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER FOURTEEN TURBOMACHINERY

14–1 Classifications and Terminology

14–2 Pumps

Pump Performance Curves and Matching a Pump to a Piping System

Pump Cavitation and Net Positive Suction Head

Pumps in Series and Parallel

Positive-Displacement Pumps

Dynamic Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps

Axial Pumps

14–3 Pump Scaling Laws

Dimensional Analysis

Pump Specific Speed

Affinity Laws

14–4 Turbines

Positive-Displacement Turbines

Dynamic Turbines

Impulse Turbines

Reaction Turbines

Gas and Steam Turbines

Wind Turbines

14–5 Turbine Scaling Laws

Dimensionless Turbine Parameters

Turbine Specific Speed

Application Spotlight: Rotary Fuel Atomizers

Summary

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

CHAPTER FIFTEEN INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS

15–1 Introduction and Fundamentals

Motivation

Equations of Motion

Solution Procedure

Additional Equations of Motion

Grid Generation and Grid Independence

Boundary Conditions

Practice Makes Perfect

15–2 Laminar CFD Calculations

Pipe Flow Entrance Region at Re = 500

Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 150

15–3 Turbulent CFD Calculations

Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 10,000

Flow around a Circular Cylinder at Re = 107

Design of the Stator for a Vane-Axial Flow Fan

15–4 CFD with Heat Transfer

Temperature Rise through a Cross-Flow Heat Exchanger

Cooling of an Array of Integrated Circuit Chips

15–5 Compressible Flow CFD Calculations

Compressible Flow through a Converging–Diverging Nozzle

Oblique Shocks over a Wedge

CFD Methods for Two-Phase Flows

15–6 Open-Channel Flow CFD Calculations

Flow over a Bump on the Bottom of a Channel

Flow through a Sluice Gate (Hydraulic Jump)

Summary

Application Spotlight: A Virtual Stomach

References and Suggested Reading

Problems

APPENDIX 1 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS)

TABLE A–1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Some Substances

TABLE A–2 Boiling and Freezing Point Properties

TABLE A–3 Properties of Saturated Water

TABLE A–4 Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a

TABLE A–5 Properties of Saturated Ammonia

TABLE A–6 Properties of Saturated Propane

TABLE A–7 Properties of Liquids

TABLE A–8 Properties of Liquid Metals

TABLE A–9 Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure

TABLE A–10 Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure

TABLE A–11 Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude

FIGURE A–12 The Moody Chart for the Friction Factor for Fully Developed Flow in Circular Pipes

TABLE A–13 One-Dimensional Isentropic Compressible Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4

TABLE A–14 One-Dimensional Normal Shock Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4

TABLE A–15 Rayleigh Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4

TABLE A–16 Fanno Flow Functions for an Ideal Gas with k = 1.4

APPENDIX 2 PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS)

TABLE A–1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Some Substances

TABLE A–2E Boiling and Freezing Point Properties

TABLE A–3E Properties of Saturated Water

TABLE A–4E Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-134a

TABLE A–5E Properties of Saturated Ammonia

TABLE A–6E Properties of Saturated Propane

TABLE A–7E Properties of Liquids

TABLE A–8E Properties of Liquid Metals

TABLE A–9E Properties of Air at 1 atm Pressure

TABLE A–10E Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure

TABLE A–11E Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude

Glossary

Index

Conversion Factors

Nomenclature

* Yunus A. Çengel* is Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Nevada, Reno. He received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Istanbul Technical University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from North Carolina State University. His areas of interest are renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy policies, heat transfer enhancement, and engineering

*. He served as the director of the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at the University of Nevada, Reno, from 1996 to 2000. He has led teams of engineering students to numerous manufacturing facilities in Northern Nevada and California to perform industrial assessments, and has prepared energy conservation, waste minimization, and productivity enhancement reports for them. He has also served as an advisor for various government organizations and corporations.*

**education**Dr. Çengel is the recipient of several outstanding teacher awards, and he has received the ASEE Meriam/Wiley Distinguished Author Award for excellence in authorship in 1992 and again in 2000. Dr. Çengel is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of Nevada, and is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE).

* John M. Cimbala *is Professor of Mechanical Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), University Park, PA. He received his B.S. in Aerospace Engineering from Penn State and his M.S. in Aeronautics from the California Institute of Technology (CalTech). He received his Ph.D. in Aeronautics from CalTech in 1984. His research areas include experimental and computational fluid mechanics and heat transfer, turbulence, turbulence modeling, turbomachinery, indoor air quality, and air pollution control. More information can be found at www.mne.psu.edu/cimbala.

Professor Cimbala is the recipient of several outstanding teaching awards and views his book writing as an extension of his love of teaching. He is a member and Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). He is also a member of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), and the American Physical Society (APS).

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