Deaf Education in the 21st Century: Topics and Trends by Nanci Scheetz, ISBN-13: 978-0138154448


Deaf Education in the 21st Century: Topics and Trends by Nanci Scheetz, ISBN-13: 978-0138154448

[PDF eBook eTextbook]

  • Publisher: ‎ Pearson; 1st edition (May 23, 2011)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 336 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 0138154449
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0138154448

A contemporary text designed to prepare future professionals to successfully work with deaf and hard of hearing students.

Specifically developed as a current and comprehensive look at the rapidly evolving field of deaf education, this first edition text covers a wide array of critical topics regarding deaf and hard-of-hearing education including cognition, social development, personal development, myths and misconceptions, postsecondary opportunities and employment, cochlear implants, and personnel training. Supplemented with a variety of illustrations, charts, and tables, Deaf Education in the 21st Century has been carefully written and organized to prepare today’s students to work effectively with this population.

With the advent of new medical advances, new technologies, and new educational opportunities, the field of deaf education is rapidly changing and evolving. Deaf Education in the 21st Century provides readers with an up-to-date look at research, the changing population of deaf and hard-of-hearing students, and what implications these discoveries and changes mean for educators, interpreters, service providers, and parents.

Features covered in Deaf Education in the 21st Century: 

·        Information on myths and misconceptions about people who are deaf help students understand the issues and challenges that the deaf and hard of hearing population face each day

·        Multiple chapters focus on cognition and personal and social development and additionally offer students important information about deaf education that is not always included in introductory material.

·        A chapter that examines postsecondary opportunities and employment trends for the deaf and hard-of-hearing

·        Several chapters discussing the impact of cochlear implants on language and literacy help students understand this new and complex development in deaf education.

·        Extensive coverage on preparing personnel to serve individuals who are deaf or hard-of-hearing offers unique information, not often found in other texts, about what educators, interpreters and social service providers need to know and do to successfully work with the deaf population.

Table of Contents:

Chapter One: Deaf Education in the 21st Century: Trends, Topics, and

Technology: A Brief Overview

Overview of the Text

What we know about the field today

Chapter Two: Myths and Misconceptions about People Who Are Deaf

People Who Are Deaf Can’t Hear Anything

Myths Surrounding the Causes of Hearing Loss

All Children Who Are Deaf Have Parents Who Are Deaf

All People Who Are Deaf Can Read Lips

People Who Are Deaf Can’t Read

People Who Are Deaf Can’t Talk

American Sign Language (ASL) is Just English on the Hands

American Sign Language is Consistent Throughout the United States

American Sign Language is International

Hearing Aids Enable Deaf People to Hear Speech

All People Who Are Deaf Wish They Could Hear

People Who Are Deaf Are Not as Intelligent as People Who Can Hear

People Who Are Deaf Can’t Drive, Fly Planes, or Operate Motor Boats

Individuals Who Are Deaf Have More Serious Emotional Problems than Hearing People

People Who Are Deaf Can’t Work

People Who Are Deaf Are Very Quiet

All People Who Are Deaf Know Sign Language


Chapter Three: A Look at the Field of Deaf Education: Where We’ve Been — Where We Are Today

Prevalence, Etiology and Identification


Hard of Hearing


Prevalence of Hearing

Diversity in the United States

Diversity within the Deaf Community

Educational Settings

Modes of Communication

Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants

Closed Captioning Technology

Use of Computer Technology

Video Relay Services (VRS) and Video Relay Interpreters (VRI)

Speech- to-Text Technology


Organizations, Clubs, and Cultural Events

Dimensions of Deafness: Identity, Ethnicity, and Social Development


Chapter Four: The Art of Hearing and Hearing Loss

The Nature of Sound

Acoustics of Speech

The Hearing Mechanism

Structure and Function of the Ear

The Outer Ear

The Middle Ear

The Inner Ear

Auditory Connections in the Brain

The Physiology of Hearing

Prevalence and Etiology of Auditory Dysfunction


Hearing Loss

Degrees of Hearing Loss

Hard of Hearing


Etiology of Auditory Dysfunction

Conductive Hearing Loss

Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Congenital Losses

Genetically Inherited Hearing Loss

Autosomal Dominant Disorders

Autosomal Recessive Disorders

X-Linked Disorders

Acquired Losses

Maternal Rubella

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)


Prematurity or Birth Complications

Other High Risk Factors for Hearing Loss

Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN)

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Causes of Hearing Loss in Adults

Noise Exposure

Ototoxic Drugs

The Aging Process

Meniere’s Disease

Diseases of the Central Auditory System


Chapter Five: Family Dynamics: Response to Diagnosis, Interpersonal Relationships, Impact on the Family Unit

Anticipation, Expectations, and Responses to the Birth of a Baby

Hearing Parents Response to the Diagnosis

Deaf Parents Response to the Diagnosis

Characteristics of Healthy Families

Factors that Contribute to Healthy Families with Deaf Children

Communication: Connecting and Interacting with Others and Society

The Building Blocks for Communication

Selecting a Mode of Communication: Factors Families Consider

Sibling Relationships

Sibling Relationships: Interactions between Deaf and Hearing Children

Self-Esteem: A Reflection of One’s Self-Image


Chapter Six: Language Acquisition: Acquiring the Building Blocks for Communication


The Components of Language









Stages of Language Development

Modes of Communication

Oral Methods: Acquiring Spoken Language

Auditory Verbal

Auditory Oral

Natural Oralism/Natural Auralism

Maternal Reflective Method

Visual Modes of Communication

American Sign Language

Manually Coded English Sign Systems

Rochester Method

Signed English

Seeing Essential English (SEE I)

Signing Exact English (SEE II)

Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE)

Contact Signing or Pidgin Signed English

Multimodal Communication Approaches

Cued Speech

Sign Supported Speech

Simultaneous Communication

Total Communication

Bilingual Communication: ASL and English

Impact of Prelingual Hearing Loss on Language Development

Enhancing Language Development Through the Use of American Sign Language

Enhancing Language Development Through an Auditory Verbal Approach


Chapter Seven: Hearing Assessment, Hearing Aids, Cochlear Implants, and

Modern Technology

Identifying Hearing Loss: The Hearing Evaluation

Pure-Tone Testing

Bone-Conduction Testing

Classification of Hearing Loss

Speech Reception Threshold Tests

Social Adequacy Index

Neonatal Screening

Otoacoustic Emission (OAEs)

Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR)

Infants and Toddlers

School Age Children

The Function and Components of Hearing Aids





Additional Components

Pitch or Tone Control

Telecoil Circuitry


Types of Hearing Aids

Over the Ear (OTE) or Behind the Ear (BTE)

All In the Ear (AIE) or In the Ear (ITE)

In the Ear (ITE)

In the Canal (ITC)

Completely in the Canal (CIC)

Low Profile Aids

CROS Hearing Aids

BiCROS Hearing Aids

IROS Hearing Aids

Bone Conduction Hearing Aids

Implantable Bone Conduction Hearing Aid Device

Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Aids

Digital Technology

Cochlear Implants

Binaural and Monaural Hearing Aid Fittings

Hearing Aid Orientation

Psychological and Emotional Ramifications of Hearing Loss

Group Listening Systems

Audio Loops

FM (Frequency Modulation) Systems

AM Systems

Infared Systems

Individual Amplification Systems

Assistive Listening Devices

Telephone Amplifiers

Additional Devices for Individuals who Experience Difficulty Hearing


Chapter Eight: Educational Settings: From Tradition to Current Practice

A Brief Historical Overview: School Reform since the 1960s

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) (1965)

Vocational Rehabilitation Act (VRA) (Public Law 93-112, Section 504)

Educational Amendments Act (Public Law 93-380) (1974)

Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EACHCA) Public Law 94-

142, Part B (1975)

Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments (Public Law 99-457)

First Wave of Educational Reform

Second Wave of Educational Reform

Third Wave of Educational Reform

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (Public Law 101-336)

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (PL 101-476)

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (PL 105-17)

Reauthorization of IDEA (Public Law 108-446)

Educating Deaf Students: The Oral/Manual Controversy

Educational Environments

Residential School Programs

Day Schools

Regular Education Classes

Early Intervention Programs

Mainstreamed Programs

Inclusion Programs

Resource Rooms and Separate Classes

Co-teaching/Co-enrollment for Students who are Deaf and Hard of


The Role of the Itinerant Teacher

The Role of the Interpreters in Inclusive Classrooms

Achievement: A Look at Deaf Students in the K-12 Setting


Chapter Nine: Literacy: Unlocking the Curriculum through Reading and Writing

Reading: A Process Involving Language and Cognition

Bottom-Up Theories

Top-Down Theories

Interactive Theories

Report: National Reading Panel

Additional Factors Contributing to Literacy

Barriers to Reading Comprehension: Factors that Impact Students

who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Phonemic Awareness in deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

Use of Phonics by Deaf and Hard of Hearing Readers

Fluency within Readers who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Comprehension of Text

Vocabulary Development

Bilingual Programs: Teaching Deaf Children to Read

Shared Reading Program

Reading Milestones/Reading Bridge

Reading Strategies: Literacy Practices Used with Deaf and Hard of Hearing


Writing, Spelling, and Deaf Students

Process Approach to Writing

Writing Strategies


Chapter Ten: Cognition: Thought Processes and Intellectual Development

A Brief Historical Overview

A Brief History

Related Research

Development of Visual Attention by Hearing and Deaf Children

Theory of Mind

Memory Systems: Storing Visual and Spatial Information

The Articulatory Loop

Research: Short-Term Memory Encoding by Students who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

The Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad

Research: Use of Visuo-Spatial Memory Between Deaf Signers and Non-


Why Implement Cognitive Intervention

A Method


Selecting a Cognitive Intervention Program

Professional Actions

Intellectual Functioning: Cognition as it Relates to Intelligence Tests

What Intelligence Tests Measure

Additional Views



Intellectual Testing and Deafness

Developing Metacognitive Skills

Feuerstein’s View of Cognitive Growth

Incorporating Thinking Skills across the Curriculum


Chapter Eleven: Personal, Social, and Cultural Development

Sharing Cultural Values and Beliefs: Impact on Self Concept and Identity

Culturally Deaf Identity: Mark

Culturally Hearing Identity: Oliver

Bicultural Identity: Amanda

School settings: influence on cultural perceptions

Socialization Experiences in Mainstream/Included Educational


Developing a Self-Concept and Feelings of Self Esteem

Research with Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: A Glimpse into Self-Concept and Self-Esteem


Chapter Twelve: Economics, Postsecondary Opportunities and Employment Trends

Labor Force Projections: A Look at Where We Are and Where We Are

Expected to be in 2018

Supporting Individuals who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing so They Can Become

Gainfully Employed

Providing Support Services: The Role of Vocational Rehabilitation

Support Services for People who are Deaf and Low Functioning

Professionals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in the Workforce

Support Services: Making Post-Secondary Institutions Accessible for Students

Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Career Experiences of College Educated Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals

A Look at Underemployment Found with respect to Individuals who are Deaf

Or Hard of Hearing

Employment Trends and Employer Expectations

Chapter Thirteen: Individuals who are Deaf with Additional Disabilities

Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing Children with Additional Disabilities:

Cognitive/Intellectual Conditions

Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing who also have a Learning


Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing with Emotional Behavioral


Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing with an Intellectual


Individuals who are deaf with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing with Attention-Deficit/

Hyperactivity Disorder

Legal Blindness and Uncorrected Visual Problems

Individuals who are Deaf-Blind

Individuals who are deaf who have Cerebral Palsy

Other Disabling Conditions


Chapter Fourteen: Preparing Personnel to Serve Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Characteristics of Master Teachers



Master Teachers in Deaf Education

Classroom Discourse

Use of Teaching Strategies

Teacher Attitudes

Teacher Behaviors and Competencies

Schools for the Deaf or Separate Schools

Teachers in Resource Rooms and Separate Classes

The Co-teacher or Collaborative Teacher

The Itinerant Teacher

Educational Interpreters: Characteristics of Effective Communication


The Role of the Educational Interpreter

Best Practices When Interpreting in the Primary Grades

Best Practices When Interpreting in the Elementary and Middle School Setting

Best Practices When Interpreting in High School Settings

Best Practices When Interpreting in Post-Secondary Settings


Chapter Fifteen: Epilogue

Summary of Current Relevant Research in the Field

Future Projections and Trends

Dr. Nanci Scheetz is a professor and program coordinator for the ASL/Interpreting and Deaf Education programs at Valdosta State University.  She is a nationally certified interpreter and teaches courses in both the interpreter training program as well as the deaf education program. She has authored several texts including:  Orientation to Deafness, Psychosocial Aspects of Deafness (Allyn & Bacon, 2003), Sign Communication for Everyday Use (Aspen Publishers, 1998), and Building ASL Interpreting and Translation Skills: Narratives for Practice (Allyn & Bacon, 2008).

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