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A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition, ISBN-13: 978-1118833759

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A History of Modern Psychology 5th Edition by C. James Goodwin, ISBN-13: 978-1118833759
[PDF eBook eTextbook]

512 pages
Publisher: Wiley; 5 edition (January 20, 2015)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1118833759
ISBN-13: 978-1118833759

The enhanced 5th Edition of Goodwin’s series, A History of Modern Psychology, explores the modern history of psychology including the fundamental bases of psychology and psychology’s advancements in the 20th century.

Goodwin’s 5th Edition focuses on the reduction of biographical information with an emphasis on more substantial information including ideas and concepts and on ideas/research contributions.

Table of contents:
Cover ……Page 1
Title Page ……Page 3
Copyright ……Page 4
Contents ……Page 5
Preface ……Page 11
Chapter 1 Introducing Psychology’s History……Page 17
Why Study History? ……Page 18
Why Study Psychology’s History? ……Page 20
Key Issues in Psychology’s History ……Page 22
Presentism versus Historicism ……Page 23
Internal versus External History ……Page 25
Close-Up: Edwin G. Boring (1886-1968) ……Page 26
Historiography: Doing and Writing History ……Page 29
Sources of Historical Data ……Page 30
From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets His Academic Grandfather ……Page 32
Data Selection Problems ……Page 33
Interpretation Problems ……Page 35
Approaching Historical Truth ……Page 36
Summary ……Page 37
Study Questions ……Page 38
Chapter 2 The Philosophical Context……Page 40
René Descartes (1596-1650): The Beginnings of Modern Philosophy and Science ……Page 41
Descartes and the Rationalist Argument ……Page 43
The Cartesian System ……Page 44
Descartes on the Reflex and Mind-Body Interaction ……Page 45
Locke on Human Understanding ……Page 48
Locke on Education ……Page 50
George Berkeley (1685-1753): Empiricism Applied to Vision ……Page 51
David Hume (1711-1776): The Rules of Association ……Page 53
David Hartley (1705-1757): A Physiological Associationism ……Page 55
Close-Up: Raising a Philosopher ……Page 57
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): On the Verge of Psychological Science ……Page 58
Mill’s Psychology ……Page 59
Mill’s Logic ……Page 60
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) ……Page 61
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) ……Page 62
In Perspective: Philosophical Foundations ……Page 63
Summary ……Page 64
Study Questions ……Page 65
Chapter 3 The Scientific Context……Page 66
Heroic Science in the Age of Enlightenment ……Page 67
Functioning of the Nervous System ……Page 68
Reflex Action ……Page 69
The Bell-Magendie Law ……Page 70
The Specific Energies of Nerves ……Page 72
Helmholtz: The Physiologist’s Physiologist ……Page 73
Measuring the Speed of Neural Impulses ……Page 74
Helmholtz on Vision and Audition ……Page 75
Helmholtz and the Problem of Perception ……Page 77
The Phrenology of Gall and Spurzheim ……Page 78
Close-Up: The Marketing of Phrenology ……Page 81
Flourens and the Method of Ablation ……Page 84
The Clinical Method ……Page 85
The Remarkable Phineas Gage ……Page 86
Broca and the Speech Center ……Page 87
Mapping the Brain: Electrical Stimulation ……Page 89
Neuron Theory ……Page 90
Sir Charles Sherrington: The Synapse ……Page 92
From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Sherrington in Oxford ……Page 93
Summary ……Page 94
Study Questions ……Page 95
Chapter 4 Wundt and German Psychology……Page 97
An Education in Germany ……Page 98
On the Threshold of Experimental Psychology: Psychophysics ……Page 99
Johann Herbart (1776-1841) ……Page 100
Weber’s Law ……Page 101
Gustav Fechner (1801-1889) ……Page 102
Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics ……Page 103
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920): Creating a New Science ……Page 104
Wundt’s Conception of the New Psychology ……Page 106
Studying Immediate Conscious Experience ……Page 107
Sensation and Perception ……Page 108
Mental Chronometry ……Page 109
Close-Up: An American in Leipzig ……Page 111
The Source of the Problem ……Page 112
The Real Wundt ……Page 113
The Wundtian Legacy ……Page 114
Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909): The Experimental Study of Memory ……Page 115
The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve ……Page 118
G. E. Müller (1850-1934): The Experimentalist Prototype ……Page 119
Oswald Külpe (1862-1915): The Würzburg School ……Page 120
Mental Sets and Imageless Thoughts ……Page 122
Summary ……Page 123
Study Questions ……Page 124
Chapter 5 Darwin’s Century: Evolutionary Thinking……Page 126
The Species Problem ……Page 127
The Shaping of a Naturalist ……Page 128
The Voyage of the Beagle ……Page 130
Darwin the Zoologist ……Page 131
The Evolution of Darwin’s Theory ……Page 132
Darwin’s Delay ……Page 134
Elements of the Theory of Evolution ……Page 136
After the Origin of Species ……Page 137
Darwin and Psychology’s History ……Page 138
Darwin on the Evolution of Emotional Expressions ……Page 139
Close-Up: Douglas Spalding and the Experimental Study of Instinct ……Page 141
George Romanes (1848-1894) and the Anecdotal Method ……Page 142
Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936) and his “Canon” ……Page 144
Francis Galton (1822-1911): Jack of All Sciences ……Page 146
The Nature of Intelligence ……Page 147
Investigating Imagery and Association ……Page 150
Summary ……Page 152
Study Questions ……Page 153
Chapter 6 American Pioneers……Page 155
Faculty Psychology ……Page 156
The Modern University ……Page 157
Education for Women and Minorities ……Page 158
William James (1842-1910): The First of the “New” Psychologists in America ……Page 162
A Life at Harvard ……Page 163
Creating American Psychology’s Most Famous Textbook ……Page 165
Consciousness ……Page 166
Habit ……Page 167
Emotion ……Page 168
Spiritualism ……Page 169
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924): Professionalizing the New Psychology ……Page 170
Hall’s Early Life and Education ……Page 171
From Johns Hopkins to Clark ……Page 172
Psychology at Clark ……Page 173
Close-Up: Creating Maze Learning ……Page 174
Hall and Developmental Psychology ……Page 176
Hall and Psychoanalysis ……Page 177
From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Invention of the Stylus Maze ……Page 179
Calkins’s Life and Work ……Page 180
Calkins’s Research on Association ……Page 181
From Psychology to Philosophy ……Page 182
Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930) ……Page 183
Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939) ……Page 184
George Trumbull Ladd (1842-1921) ……Page 185
James Mark Baldwin (1861-1934) ……Page 186
In Perspective: The New Psychology at the Millennium ……Page 187
Summary ……Page 188
Study Questions ……Page 189
Chapter 7 Structuralism and Functionalism……Page 191
From Oxford to Leipzig to Cornell ……Page 192
Promoting Experimental Psychology at Cornell ……Page 193
The Manuals ……Page 195
The Experimentalists ……Page 197
Titchener’s Structuralist System ……Page 198
Close-Up: The Introspective Habit ……Page 199
The Structural Elements of Human Conscious Experience ……Page 200
Evaluating Titchener’s Contributions to Psychology ……Page 201
From the Miles Papers: Miles and the Carlisle Conference ……Page 202
America’s Psychology: Functionalism ……Page 203
John Dewey (1859-1952): The Reflex Arc ……Page 205
James R. Angell (1869-1949): The Province of Functional Psychology ……Page 207
Harvey Carr (1873-1954): The Maturing of Functionalism ……Page 209
James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944): An American Galton ……Page 210
Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949): Cats in Puzzle Boxes ……Page 213
Robert S. Woodworth (1869-1962): A Dynamic Psychology ……Page 218
In Perspective: Structuralism and Functionalism ……Page 220
Summary ……Page 221
Study Questions ……Page 222
Chapter 8 Applying the new Psychology……Page 224
The Desire for Application ……Page 225
From the Miles Papers: Miles and Stanford Football ……Page 226
Alfred Binet (1857-1911): The Birth of Modern Intelligence Testing ……Page 228
The Binet-Simon Scales ……Page 230
Henry H. Goddard (1866-1957): Binet’s Test Comes to America ……Page 231
The Kallikaks ……Page 233
Goddard and the Immigrants ……Page 235
The Stanford-Binet IQ Test ……Page 237
Terman Studies the Gifted ……Page 238
Close-Up: Leta Hollingworth: Advocating for Gifted Children and Debunking Myths about Women ……Page 240
Robert M. Yerkes (1876-1956): The Army Testing Program ……Page 242
Army Alpha and Army Beta ……Page 243
The Controversy over Intelligence ……Page 246
Applying Psychology to Business ……Page 248
Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916): The Diversity of Applied Psychology ……Page 249
Münsterberg and Employee Selection ……Page 251
Walter Van Dyke Bingham (1880-1952) ……Page 253
Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972) ……Page 254
Harry Hollingworth (1880-1956) ……Page 255
Applied Psychology in Europe-Psychotechnics ……Page 256
In Perspective: Applied Psychology ……Page 257
Summary ……Page 258
Study Questions ……Page 259
Chapter 9 Gestalt Psychology……Page 260
The Origins and Early Development of Gestalt Psychology ……Page 261
Max Wertheimer (1880-1943): Founding Gestalt Psychology ……Page 263
Koffka (1886-1941) and Köhler (1887-1967): Cofounders ……Page 265
Close-Up: A Case of Espionage? ……Page 267
Gestalt Psychology and Perception ……Page 268
Principles of Perceptual Organization ……Page 269
The Gestalt Approach to Cognition and Learning ……Page 271
Köhler on Insight in Apes ……Page 272
Wertheimer on Productive Thinking ……Page 273
Other Gestalt Research on Cognition ……Page 274
Early Life and Career ……Page 276
From the Miles Papers: Miles Learns about the Nazi Version of Academic Freedom ……Page 277
Field Theory ……Page 278
Lewin as Developmental Psychologist ……Page 280
Lewin as Social Psychologist ……Page 282
Action Research ……Page 283
In Perspective: Gestalt Psychology in America ……Page 284
Summary ……Page 285
Study Questions ……Page 287
Chapter 10 The Origins of Behaviorism……Page 288
Behaviorism’s Antecedents ……Page 289
Pavlov’s Life and Work ……Page 290
Working in Pavlov’s Laboratory-The Physiology Factory ……Page 291
Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Research ……Page 293
Conditioning and Extinction ……Page 294
Experimental Neurosis ……Page 295
Pavlov and the Soviets ……Page 296
Pavlov and the Americans ……Page 298
Close-Up: Misportraying Pavlov’s Apparatus ……Page 299
From the Miles Papers: Miles Meets Pavlov ……Page 300
The Young Functionalist at Chicago ……Page 301
The Watson-Carr Maze Studies ……Page 302
Watson and Animal Behavior ……Page 304
Watson’s Behaviorist Manifesto ……Page 305
Studying Emotional Development ……Page 307
The Zenith and the Nadir of a Career: Little Albert ……Page 308
A New Life in Advertising ……Page 311
Popularizing Behaviorism ……Page 312
Evaluating Watsonian Behaviorism ……Page 313
Summary ……Page 315
Study Questions ……Page 316
Chapter 11 The Evolution of Behaviorism……Page 318
Post-Watsonian Behaviorism ……Page 319
Logical Positivism and Operationism ……Page 320
Neobehaviorism ……Page 322
Edwin R. Guthrie (1886-1959): Contiguity, Contiguity, Contiguity ……Page 323
One-Trial Learning ……Page 324
Evaluating Guthrie ……Page 325
Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959): A Purposive Behaviorism ……Page 326
Molar versus Molecular Behavior ……Page 327
Intervening Variables ……Page 328
Tolman’s Research Program ……Page 330
Latent Learning ……Page 331
Cognitive Maps ……Page 332
Evaluating Tolman ……Page 333
Clark Hull (1884-1952): A Hypothetico-Deductive System ……Page 335
Hull’s System ……Page 337
Postulate 4: Habit Strength ……Page 338
Evaluating Hull ……Page 339
B. F. Skinner (1904-1990): A Radical Behaviorism ……Page 341
The Experimental Analysis of Behavior ……Page 342
Operant Conditioning: A Primer ……Page 344
Skinner and Theory ……Page 345
Skinner and the Problem of Explanation ……Page 346
A Technology of Behavior ……Page 347
Close-Up: The IQ Zoo and the “Misbehavior of Organisms” ……Page 348
Evaluating Skinner ……Page 350
In Perspective: Neobehaviorism ……Page 351
Summary ……Page 352
Study Questions ……Page 353
Chapter 12 Mental Illness and its Treatment……Page 355
“Enlightened” Reform: Pinel, Tuke, Rush ……Page 356
The 19th-Century Asylum Movement ……Page 358
Reforming Asylums: Dix and Beers ……Page 361
Close-Up: Diagnosing Mental Illness ……Page 362
Mesmerism and Hypnosis ……Page 363
Mesmerism and Animal Magnetism ……Page 364
From Mesmerism to Hypnosis ……Page 365
The Hypnotism Controversies ……Page 366
Early Life and Education ……Page 368
Breuer and the Catharsis Method ……Page 370
Creating Psychoanalysis ……Page 372
The Importance of Sex ……Page 373
The Evolution of Psychoanalytic Theory ……Page 374
Freud’s Followers: Loyalty and Dissent ……Page 376
Psychoanalysis in America ……Page 377
Evaluating Freud ……Page 378
Criticisms ……Page 379
Summary ……Page 380
Study Questions ……Page 382
Chapter 13 Psychology’s Practitioners……Page 383
The Medical Approach to Mental Illness ……Page 384
A Shock to the System: Fever, Insulin, Metrazol, and Electricity ……Page 385
Close-Up: Shell Shock ……Page 386
No Reversal: Lobotomy, Transorbital and Otherwise ……Page 387
Clinical Psychology before World War II ……Page 389
Lightner Witmer (1867-1956): Creating Psychology’s First Clinic ……Page 390
Clinical Psychology Between the World Wars ……Page 392
The Emergence of Modern Clinical Psychology ……Page 393
The Boulder Model ……Page 394
The Eysenck Study: Problems for Psychotherapy ……Page 395
Behavior Therapy ……Page 396
Abraham Maslow and the Goal of Self-Actualization ……Page 397
Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy ……Page 398
The Vail Conference and the PsyD Degree ……Page 401
Psychology and the World of Business and Industry ……Page 403
The Hawthorne Studies ……Page 405
In Perspective: Psychology’s Practitioners ……Page 407
Summary ……Page 408
Study Questions ……Page 409
Chapter 14 Psychology’s Researchers……Page 411
Jean Piaget (1896-1980): A Genetic Epistemology ……Page 412
Frederick C. Bartlett (1886-1969): Constructing Memory ……Page 414
Influences within Psychology ……Page 416
Influences External to Psychology ……Page 417
Close-Up: What Revolution? ……Page 419
Magical Numbers, Selective Filters, and TOTE Units ……Page 420
Neisser and the “Naming” of Cognitive Psychology ……Page 423
The Evolution of Cognitive Psychology ……Page 424
Other Research Areas ……Page 426
Karl Lashley (1890-1958) ……Page 427
From the Miles Papers: Miles Visits Lashley ……Page 429
Donald O. Hebb (1904-1985) ……Page 430
James J. Gibson (1904-1979) ……Page 431
Eleanor Gibson (1910-2002) ……Page 433
Social Psychology ……Page 434
Leon Festinger (1919-1989) ……Page 435
Stanley Milgram (1933-1984) ……Page 437
Henry Murray (1893-1988) ……Page 439
Gordon Allport (1897-1967) ……Page 440
In Perspective: Psychology’s Researchers ……Page 442
Summary ……Page 443
Study Questions ……Page 444
Researchers and Practitioners ……Page 445
The Growth and Diversity of Psychology ……Page 446
Women in Psychology’s History ……Page 447
Minorities in Psychology’s History ……Page 448
Trends in Modern Psychology ……Page 449
The Future: Psychology or Psychologies? ……Page 450
Summary ……Page 452
Study Questions ……Page 453
References ……Page 455
Glossary ……Page 485
Index ……Page 497
Timelines ……Page 511
EULA……Page 515

About the Author

C. James Goodwin is an emeritus professor at Wheeling Jesuit University, where he taught for 30 years before taking an early retirement. He is currently residing in the mountains of North Carolina and is Professor of Psychology at Western Carolina University. He earned a Bachelor’s degree from the College of the Holy Cross and a Master’s and PhD in experimental psychology from Florida State University, specializing in memory and cognition. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association in Divisions 2 (teaching) and 26 (history). His research interests on the empirical side are in the area of cognitive mapping, wayfinding, and spatial cognition, but his prime interest is in the early history of experimental psychology in the United States. He is the author of two undergraduate textbooks, one in research methods (Research in Psychology: Methods and Design) and one in the history of psychology (A History of Modern Psychology)

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