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We the People 11th Essentials Edition, ISBN-13: 978-0393283648

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We the People 11th Essentials Edition by Benjamin Ginsberg, ISBN-13: 978-0393283648
[PDF eBook eTextbook]

624 pages
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company; Eleventh Essentials edition (December 27, 2016)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 039328364X
ISBN-13: 978-0393283648

Politics is relevant and participation matters.

We the People, Eleventh Edition, sets a new standard for showing how government affects students lives and why it matters who participates. The Who Are Americans? theme has been expanded to highlight how Americans from different backgrounds experience politics, and new Who Participates? infographics get students thinking critically about who shapes American politics. The textbook, InQuizitive course, and free coursepack are organized around chapter learning goals to ensure students learn the nuts and bolts of American government.

About the Author

Benjamin Ginsberg is the David Bernstein Professor of Political Science and Chair of the Center for Advanced Governmental Studies at the Johns Hopkins University. He is the author or coauthor of 25 books, including Presidential Power: Unchecked and Unbalanced; Downsizing Democracy: How America Sidelined Its Citizens and Privatized Its Public; Politics by Other Means; The Consequences of Consent; The Worth of War; and The Captive Public. Ginsberg received his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1973. Before joining the Hopkins faculty in 1992, Ginsberg was Professor of Government at Cornell. His most recent books are The Fall of the Faculty: The Rise of the All-Administrative University and Why It Matters; What the Government Thinks of the People; and Analytics, Policy and Governance.

Table of contents:

We the People: An Introduction to American Politics 11e/Essentials edition……Page 1
Half title……Page 2
Map……Page 3
Title Page……Page 6
Copyright……Page 7
Dedication……Page 8
Contents……Page 10
Preface……Page 22
Acknowledgments……Page 24
1. Introduction: The Citizen and Government……Page 31
Government Affects Our Lives Every Day……Page 34
Political Efficacy Means People Can Make a Difference……Page 36
Citizenship Is Based on Political Knowledge and Participation……Page 37
Different Forms of Government Are Defined by Power and Freedom……Page 38
Limits on Governments Encouraged Freedom……Page 39
The Goal of Politics Is Having a Say in What Happens……Page 40
The Identity of Americans Has Changed over Time……Page 41
Immigration and Increasing Ethnic Diversity Have Long Caused Intense Debate……Page 42
Today the Country Still Confronts the Question “Who Are Americans?”……Page 43
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE: Global Diversity……Page 46
Liberty Means Freedom……Page 48
Equality Means Treating People Fairly……Page 49
American Political Values and Your Future……Page 50
WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Participated in the 2012
Presidential Election?……Page 52
Key Terms……Page 55
For Further Reading……Page 56
2.
The Founding and the Constitution……Page 57
Narrow Interests and Political Conflicts Shaped the First Founding……Page 60
British Taxes Hurt Colonial Economic Interests……Page 61
Political Strife Radicalized the Colonists……Page 62
The Declaration of Independence Explained Why the Colonists Wanted to Break with Great Britain……Page 63
The Articles of Confederation Created America’s First National Government……Page 64
The Failure of the Articles of Confederation Made the “Second Founding” Necessary……Page 65
Shays’s Rebellion Showed How Weak the Government Was……Page 66
The Constitutional Convention Didn’t Start Out to Write a New Constitution……Page 67
The Constitution Created Both Bold Powers and Sharp Limitson Power……Page 70
The Legislative Branch Was Designed to Be the Most Powerful……Page 72
The Executive Branch Created a Brand New Office……Page 73
National Unity and Power Set the New Constitution Apart fromthe Old Articles……Page 74
The Constitution Limits the National Government’s Power……Page 75
Ratification of the Constitution Was Difficult……Page 78
Federalists and Antifederalists Fought Bitterly over the Wisdom of the New Constitution……Page 79
Both Federalists and Antifederalists Contributed to the Success of the New System……Page 81
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE:
Comparing Systems of Government……Page 82
Amendments: Many Are Called; Few Are Chosen……Page 83
The Amendment Process Reflects “Higher Law”……Page 84
The Constitution and Your Future……Page 87
WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Gained the Right to Vote through Amendments?……Page 88
Key Terms……Page 91
For Further Reading……Page 92
3.
Federalism……Page 93
Federalism Comes from the Constitution……Page 96
Federalism under the “Traditional System” Gave Most Powers to the States……Page 100
The Supreme Court Paved the Way for the End of the “Traditional System”……Page 102
FDR’s New Deal Remade the Government……Page 104
Changing Court Interpretations of Federalism Helped the New Deal While Preserving States’ Rights……Page 105
Cooperative Federalism Pushes States to Achieve National Goals……Page 107
National Standards Have Been Advanced through Federal Programs……Page 108
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE: Government Spending in Federal
and Unitary Systems……Page 110
New Federalism Means More State Control……Page 112
There Is No Simple Answer to Finding the Right National–State Balance……Page 113
Federalism and Your Future……Page 117
WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Participates in State and Local Politics?……Page 118
Key Terms……Page 120
For Further Reading……Page 122
4.
Civil Liberties and Civil Rights……Page 123
The Origin of the Bill of Rights Lies in Those Who Opposed the Constitution……Page 126
The Fourteenth Amendment Nationalized
the Bill of Rights through Incorporation……Page 127
Separation between Church and State Comes from the First Amendment……Page 130
Free Exercise of Religion Means You Have a Right to Your Beliefs……Page 131
Political Speech Is Consistently Protected……Page 132
Symbolic Speech, Speech Plus, Assembly, and Petition Are
Highly Protected……Page 133
Some Speech Has Only Limited Protection……Page 135
The Second Amendment Now Protects an Individual’s Right to Own a Gun……Page 138
The Fourth Amendment Protects against Unlawful Searches and Seizures……Page 140
The Fifth Amendment Covers Court-Related Rights……Page 142
The Eighth Amendment Bars Cruel and Unusual Punishment……Page 144
The Right to Privacy Means the Right to Be Left Alone……Page 145
Plessy v. Ferguson Established “Separate but Equal”……Page 147
Lawsuits to Fight for Equality Came after World War II……Page 148
The Civil Rights Struggle Escalated after Brown v. Board of Education……Page 150
The Civil Rights Acts Made Equal Protection a Reality……Page 151
Americans Have Fought Gender Discrimination……Page 155
Latinos and Asian Americans Fight for Rights……Page 158
Native Americans Have Sovereignty but Still Lack Rights……Page 159
Gay Men and Lesbians Have Gained Significant Legal Ground……Page 160
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE:
Same-Sex Marriage around the World……Page 162
The Supreme Court Shifts the Burden of Proof in Affirmative Action……Page 163
Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, and Your Future……Page 164
WHO PARTICIPATES? Religious Affiliation and Freedom of Religion……Page 166
Key Terms……Page 169
For Further Reading……Page 170
5. Public Opinion……Page 171
Public Opinion Represents Attitudes about Politics……Page 174
Americans Share Common Political Values……Page 175
America’s Dominant Political Ideologies Are Liberalism and Conservatism……Page 177
Americans Exhibit Low Trust in Government……Page 178
Political Socialization Shapes Public Opinion……Page 179
Political Knowledge Is Important in Shaping Public Opinion……Page 185
The Media and Government Mold Opinion……Page 187
The News Media’s Message Affects Public Opinion……Page 188
Government Policies Also Respond to Public Opinion……Page 189
Public-Opinion Surveys Are Accurate If Done Properly……Page 190
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE:
Public Opinion on Climate Change……Page 191
Why Are Some Polls Wrong?……Page 194
Public Opinion, Democracy, and Your Future……Page 197
WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Expresses Their Political Opinions?……Page 198
Key Terms……Page 201
For Further Reading……Page 202
6.
The Media……Page 203
Print Media……Page 206
Broadcast Media……Page 208
More Media Outlets Are Owned by Fewer Companies……Page 209
The Rise of New Media Has Strongly Influenced
How Americans Get Their News……Page 211
Online News Takes Many Forms……Page 212
New Media Have Many Benefits……Page 216
But New Media Raise Several Concerns……Page 217
The Media Influence Public Opinion through Agenda-Setting, Framing, and Priming……Page 218
Leaked Information Can Come from Government Officials or Independent Sources……Page 220
Adversarial Journalism Has Risen in Recent Years……Page 221
Broadcast Media Are Regulated but Not Print Media……Page 222
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE:
Press Freedom around the world……Page 224
The Media, Democracy, and Your Future……Page 225
WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Participates via Social Media?……Page 226
Key Terms……Page 229
For Further Reading……Page 230
7.
Political Parties, Participation, and Elections……Page 231
Political Parties Arose from the Electoral Process……Page 234
Parties Help Get Out the Vote……Page 235
Presidents Need Political Parties……Page 237
America Is One of the Few Nations with a Two-Party System……Page 238
Electoral Realignments Define Party Systems in American History……Page 244
American Third Parties Sometimes Change the Major Parties and Election Outcomes……Page 245
Voting Is the Most Important Form of Traditional Participation……Page 247
Digital Political Participation Is Surging……Page 248
Voter Turnout in America Is Low……Page 250
Why Do People Vote?……Page 251
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE:
Voter Turnout in Comparison……Page 253
Party Loyalty Is Important……Page 254
Candidate Characteristics Are More Important in the Media Age……Page 255
The Electoral Process Has Many Levels and Rules……Page 256
The Electoral College Still Organizes Presidential Elections……Page 257
The 2016 Election……Page 258
The General Election Was Bitterly Fought……Page 259
White Working-Class Voters Were Key to Trump’s Victory……Page 261
The 2016 Election Raised Important Questions About the Future……Page 262
Campaign Funds Come from Direct Appeals, the Rich, PACs,
and Parties……Page 264
Political Parties, Elections, and Your Future……Page 267
WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Voted in 2012?……Page 268
Key Terms……Page 271
For Further Reading……Page 272
8.
Interest Groups……Page 273
Interest Groups Form to Advocate for Different Interests……Page 276
What Interests Are Represented?……Page 277
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE: Labor Union Membership in Global Decline……Page 278
Group Membership Has an Upper-Class Bias……Page 279
The Organizational Components of Groups Include Money, Offices, and Members……Page 280
The Internet Has Changed the Way Interest Groups Foster Participation……Page 283
The Expansion of Government Has Spurred the Growth of Groups……Page 284
Interest Groups Use Different Strategies to Gain Influence……Page 285
Direct Lobbying Combines Education, Persuasion, and Pressure……Page 286
Cultivating Access Means Getting the Attention of Decision Makers……Page 287
Using the Courts (Litigation) Can Be Highly Effective……Page 289
Mobilizing Public Opinion Brings Wider Attention to an Issue……Page 290
Groups Often Use Electoral Politics……Page 292
Groups, Interests, and Your Future……Page 294
WHO PARTICIPATES? How Much Do Major Groups Spend?……Page 296
Key Terms……Page 299
For Further Reading……Page 300
9. Congress……Page 301
The House and Senate Offer Differences in Representation……Page 304
Representation Can Be Sociological or Agency……Page 305
The Electoral Connection Hinges on Incumbency……Page 308
Direct Patronage Means Bringing Home the Bacon……Page 313
Party Leadership in the House and the Senate Organizes Power……Page 315
The Committee System Is the Core of Congress……Page 316
The Staff System Is the Power behind the Power……Page 318
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE: Legislatures in Comparison……Page 319
Debate Is Less Restricted in the Senate Than in the House……Page 320
The President’s Veto Controls the Flow of Legislation……Page 323
Interest Groups Influence Constituents and Congress……Page 324
Party Leaders Rely on Party Discipline……Page 325
Partisanship Has Thwarted the Ability of Congress to Decide……Page 329
Much Congressional Energy Goes to Tasks Other Than Lawmaking……Page 330
Special Senate Powers Include Advice and Consent……Page 331
Congress and Your Future……Page 332
WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Elects Congress?……Page 334
Key Terms……Page 337
For Further Reading……Page 340
10.
The Presidency……Page 341
Presidential Power Is Rooted in the Constitution……Page 344
Expressed Powers Come Directly from the Words
of the Constitution……Page 345
Delegated Powers Come from Congress……Page 350
Modern Presidents Have Claimed Inherent Powers……Page 351
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE:
Executive Branches in Comparison……Page 352
Institutional Resources of Presidential Power
Are Numerous……Page 353
The Cabinet Is Often Distant from the President……Page 354
The Executive Office of the President Is a Visible Sign of the Modern Strong Presidency……Page 355
The First Spouse Has Become Important to Policy……Page 356
Party, Popular Mobilization, and Administration Make
Presidents Stronger……Page 357
Going Public Means Trying to Whip Up the People……Page 358
The Administrative Strategy Increases Presidential Control……Page 360
Presidential Power Has Limits……Page 363
The Presidency and Your Future……Page 365
WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Voted for Donald Trump in 2016?……Page 366
Key Terms……Page 369
For Further Reading……Page 370
11.
Bureaucracy……Page 371
Bureaucracy Exists to Improve Efficiency……Page 374
Bureaucrats Fulfill Important Roles……Page 375
The Size of the Federal Service Has Actually Declined……Page 377
The Executive Branch Is Organized Hierarchically……Page 379
Federal Bureaucracies Promote the Public Welfare……Page 380
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE:
Bureaucracy in Comparison……Page 382
Federal Agencies Provide for National Security……Page 384
Federal Bureaucracies Help to Maintain a Strong National
Economy……Page 386
The President as Chief Executive Can Direct Agencies……Page 388
Congress Promotes Responsible Bureaucracy……Page 390
Can the Bureaucracy Be Reformed?……Page 392
Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Your Future……Page 393
WHO PARTICIPATES? Getting Information from the Bureaucracy……Page 394
Key Terms……Page 397
For Further Reading……Page 398
12.
The Federal Courts……Page 399
Court Cases Proceed under Criminal and
Civil Law……Page 402
Types of Courts Include Trial, Appellate,
and Supreme……Page 403
The Lower Federal Courts Handle Most Cases……Page 406
The Appellate Courts Hear 20 Percent of Lower-Court Cases……Page 407
The Supreme Court Is the Court of Final Appeal……Page 408
Judges Are Appointed by the President and Approved by the Senate……Page 409
Judicial Review Covers Acts of Congress……Page 411
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE:
Judicial Review across the Globe……Page 412
Judicial Review Applies to Presidential Actions……Page 413
Judicial Review Also Applies to State Actions……Page 414
Most Cases Reach the Supreme Court by Appeal……Page 415
The Solicitor General, Law Clerks, and Interest Groups Also Influence the Flow of Cases……Page 416
The Supreme Court’s Procedures Mean Cases May Take Months or Years……Page 418
Supreme Court Decisions Are Influenced by Activism and Ideology……Page 421
The Federal Judiciary and Your Future……Page 424
WHO PARTICIPATES? Influencing the Supreme Court?……Page 426
Key Terms……Page 429
For Further Reading……Page 430
13. Domestic Policy……Page 431
Promotional Policies Get People to Do Things by Giving Them Rewards……Page 434
Regulatory Policies Are Rules Backed by Penalties……Page 436
Redistributive Policies Affect Broad Classes
of People……Page 438
Should the Government Intervene in the Economy?……Page 440
The History of the Government Welfare System Dates Only to the 1930s……Page 441
The Social Security Act of 1935 Was the Foundation of the
Welfare System……Page 442
Welfare Reform Has Dominated the Welfare Agenda in Recent Years……Page 445
Education Policies Provide Life Tools……Page 447
Health Policies Mean Fewer Sick Days……Page 449
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE: U.S. Education Policy: Lagging or Leading?……Page 450
Housing Policies Provide Residential Stability……Page 454
Senior Citizens Receive over a Third of All Federal Dollars……Page 455
The Working Poor Receive Fewer Benefits……Page 457
Spending for the Nonworking Poor Is Declining……Page 458
Minorities, Women, and Children Are Most Likely to Face Poverty……Page 459
Domestic Policy and Your Future……Page 460
WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Pays Taxes?……Page 462
Key Terms……Page 465
For Further Reading……Page 466
14.
Foreign Policy……Page 467
Security Is Based on Military Strength……Page 470
America Seeks a More Humane World……Page 474
AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE:
Trade in Comparison……Page 475
American Foreign Policy Is Shaped by
Government and Nongovernment Actors……Page 477
The President Leads Foreign Policy……Page 478
Congress’s Legal Authority Can Be Decisive……Page 479
Interest Groups Pressure Foreign Policy Decision Makers……Page 481
Tools of American Foreign Policy Include Diplomacy, Force, and Money……Page 482
The United Nations Is the World’s Congress……Page 483
Economic Aid Has Two Sides……Page 484
Collective Security Is Designed to Deter War……Page 485
Military Force Is “Politics by Other Means”……Page 486
Foreign Policy, Democracy, and Your Future……Page 487
WHO PARTICIPATES? Public Opinion on Security Issues……Page 488
Key Terms……Page 491
For Further Reading……Page 492
The Declaration of Independence……Page 494
The Articles of Confederation……Page 498
The Constitution of the United States of America……Page 504
Amendments to the Constitution……Page 515
The Federalist Papers……Page 524
The Anti-Federalist Papers……Page 533
Presidents and Vice Presidents……Page 541
Glossary……Page 544
Endnotes……Page 558
Answer Key……Page 588
Credits……Page 590
Index……Page 592

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