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Stepping Stones: A Guided Approach to Writing Sentences and Paragraphs 2nd Edition, ISBN 978-0312675998

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Stepping Stones: A Guided Approach to Writing Sentences and Paragraphs 2nd Edition by Chris Juzwiak, ISBN 978-0312675998
[PDF eBook eTextbook]

576 pages
Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin’s; Second edition (January 11, 2012)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0312675992
ISBN-13: 978-0312675998

With grants from the Hewlett Packard and Carnegie Foundations, Chris Juzwiak and a growing team of developmental instructors continue to uncover how basic writers learn best, pinpointing what encourages them, what discourages them, and how to serve their learning needs. Stepping Stones reflects the results of these studies with scaffolded exercises and instruction, color-coded parts of speech and writing concepts, and creative activities. With a strong visual appeal and clear explanations, this innovative textbook presents sentence and paragraph patterns so that all students can immediately grasp them, and offers carefully constructed guidance for developing and organizing ideas—-two of the most difficult tasks for developmental students

Award-winning educator, Chris Juzwiak, knows that many basic writing students have experienced failure in the past, but that with the right tools they can also become confident and successful learners.

About the Author

Chris Juzwiak holds an M.A. in comparative literature from the University of California, Los Angeles. He has taught college-level English for more than twenty years and is currently chair of the Developmental Composition Program at Glendale Community College. In 2002, he received the John Craven Award for Innovative Pedagogy in Composition Instruction and in 2010 the Distinguished Faculty Award. He has presented at numerous educational conferences, and has received grants from the Carnegie Foundation, the Hewlett Packard Foundation, and the California Basic Skills initiative to support his research into developmental and digital pedagogies.

Table of contents:

Cover Page……Page 1
Brief Contents……Page 3
Title Page……Page 7
ISBN 9780312675998……Page 8
Preface for Instructors……Page 9
Contents……Page 21
Readings by Patterns of Development……Page 31
Introduction for Students……Page 33
PART ONE The Academic Paragraph……Page 41
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 43
Academic and Popular Paragraphs……Page 44
Understanding Your Purpose……Page 49
To Inform……Page 50
To Persuade……Page 51
Understanding Your Audience……Page 55
Use Language That Is Appropriate for Your Audience……Page 56
Include Information That Is Appropriate for Your Audience……Page 57
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 58
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 60
Understanding Broad, Limited, and Narrow Topics……Page 61
Narrowing a Topic……Page 62
Selecting a Topic That Works for You……Page 64
Clustering and Listing……Page 66
Clustering……Page 67
Listing……Page 69
Questioning……Page 72
Freewriting……Page 75
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 77
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 79
Ordering Single-Word Items……Page 80
Ordering Phrases……Page 82
Ordering Sentences……Page 84
Grouping Single-Word Items……Page 87
Grouping Phrases……Page 88
Grouping Sentences……Page 91
Eliminating Single-Word Items……Page 93
Eliminating Phrases……Page 95
Eliminating Sentences……Page 96
Combining Strategies……Page 98
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 105
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 106
Outlining Basics……Page 107
Feature 1: The Main Idea……Page 108
Feature 2: The Support Points……Page 109
Feature 3: The Related Examples……Page 111
Filling in Outlines……Page 112
Solving Problems in Outlines……Page 116
A Missing Item……Page 117
An Item That Does Not Fit……Page 119
An Item That Repeats Another Item……Page 121
An Item That Is Unclear……Page 123
Combined Problems……Page 125
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 127
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 128
Writing an Effective Topic Sentence……Page 129
Accidentally Changing the Meaning of Your Main Idea……Page 131
Asking a Question in Your Topic Sentence……Page 133
Making an Announcement in Your Topic Sentence……Page 134
Writing the Topic Sentence as a Fragment……Page 135
Writing the First Support Point……Page 136
Remember Transitional Expressions……Page 138
Do Not Write Support Points as Fragments……Page 139
Avoid Combining the Support Point with the First Example……Page 140
Discuss the Examples One at a Time……Page 142
Add Some Specific Details to the Examples……Page 144
Use Minor Transitional Expressions to Move from Example to Example……Page 145
Write the Concluding Sentence……Page 148
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 152
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 153
Four Major Problems with Unity……Page 154
Problem 2: An Unstated or Unclear Support Point……Page 156
Problem 4: Details That Do Not Fit……Page 157
Some Helpful Revision Strategies……Page 160
Get Peer Review……Page 161
Proofreading for Grammar and Mechanics……Page 163
Proofreading for Word Choice (and Missing Words)……Page 164
Identify Your Style of Proofreading……Page 169
Proofread Backwards……Page 170
Keep Logs for Spelling, Grammar, and Vocabulary……Page 171
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 174
PART TWO Expanding Your Writing……Page 177
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 179
Recognizing Imprecise and Unclear Language……Page 180
Adding Precise Details to Your Paragraph……Page 181
Using Concrete Details……Page 188
Using Action Details……Page 192
Using Quoted Details……Page 195
Using Sensory Details……Page 198
Using Emotive Details……Page 203
Using Comparative Details: Metaphors and Similes……Page 206
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 210
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 211
Description……Page 212
A Student Writer Uses Description……Page 213
A Student Writer Uses Exemplification……Page 216
Narration……Page 217
A Student Writer Uses Narration……Page 218
A Student Writer Uses Process (“How To”)……Page 221
A Student Writer Uses Process (“How It Happens”)……Page 222
A Student Writer Uses Definition……Page 224
Advanced Writing Patterns……Page 225
A Student Writer Uses Pure Cause……Page 226
A Student Writer Uses Pure Effect……Page 228
Comparison and Contrast……Page 229
A Student Writer Uses Pure Comparison……Page 230
A Student Writer Uses Pure Contrast……Page 231
A Student Writer Uses Argumentation……Page 236
Mixing the Patterns……Page 238
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 241
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 243
Method 1: Expand the Parts of Your Paragraph……Page 244
Method 2: Expand the Main Idea of Your Paragraph……Page 249
Starting with a Story……Page 253
Thesis Statement versus Topic Sentence……Page 254
Adding a Conclusion……Page 257
Strategy 3: Ending with Some Thought-Provoking Questions……Page 258
Revising and Proofreading……Page 259
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 260
PART THREE Grammar for Academic Writing……Page 263
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 265
The Building Blocks of Language……Page 266
Building Short Simple Sentences……Page 267
Foundation Words: Nouns……Page 268
Foundation Words: Verbs……Page 271
Descriptive Words: Adjectives and Adverbs……Page 274
Connecting Words: Conjunctions……Page 277
BUILD IT: Even Longer Simple Sentences……Page 279
Connecting Words: Prepositions……Page 280
Identifying Subjects When There Are Prepositional Phrases……Page 283
Identifying Subjects and Verbs in Whole Paragraphs……Page 284
Fixing Fragments That Are Missing Verbs……Page 286
Fixing Fragments That Have Incomplete Verbs……Page 287
Fixing Fragments That Are Missing Subjects……Page 289
Fixing Fragments in Whole Paragraphs……Page 291
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 293
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 295
BUILD IT: Short Compound Sentences……Page 296
Distinguishing Compound Subjects/Verbs and Compound Sentences……Page 300
Using a Semicolon in Place of a Conjunction……Page 305
Adding Descriptive Words and Prepositional Phrases……Page 309
Including Compound Subjects and Verbs……Page 312
Joining Three Simple Sentences Instead of Two……Page 315
Recognizing Correct Punctuation in Simple and Compound Sentences……Page 319
Understanding How Run-Ons and Comma Splices Occur……Page 323
Understanding Words That Can Cause Run-Ons and Comma Splices……Page 325
Personal Pronouns……Page 326
Demonstrative Pronouns……Page 328
Additive Expressions……Page 330
Transitional Expressions……Page 332
Reviewing Causes and Corrections of Run-Ons and Comma Splices……Page 336
Fixing Run-Ons and Comma Splices in Whole Paragraphs……Page 337
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 340
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 342
BUILD IT: Complex Sentences……Page 343
Understanding Coordinating versus Subordinating Conjunctions……Page 344
Expected and Unexpected Results……Page 347
Conditions and Outcomes……Page 350
Review……Page 352
Recognizing Correct Punctuation in Complex Sentences……Page 353
Building Sentence Variety……Page 355
Building Complex Sentences in Whole Paragraphs……Page 358
Fixing Fragments Caused by a Misplaced Period……Page 360
Fixing Fragments Caused by a Misplaced Semicolon……Page 363
Fixing Fragments in Whole Paragraphs……Page 365
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 367
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 368
BUILD IT: Complex Sentences with Clauses……Page 369
That and Which Clauses……Page 371
Understanding Glue Words Used in Clauses……Page 373
Placing Clauses in Sentences……Page 374
Who Clauses……Page 375
When and Where Clauses……Page 377
BUILD IT: Longer Sentences with Clauses……Page 380
Building Complex Sentences in Whole Paragraphs……Page 382
Fixing Fragments……Page 383
Fixing Fragments in Whole Paragraphs……Page 390
Misplaced Modifiers……Page 393
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 394
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 396
BUILD IT: Sentences with Modifiers……Page 397
Beginning a Sentence with an -ing Phrase……Page 398
Beginning a Sentence with a to Phrase……Page 400
Beginning a Sentence with an -ed Phrase……Page 403
Placing Modifying Phrases in Other Parts of a Sentence……Page 407
Building Sentences with Modifiers in Whole Paragraphs……Page 409
Recognizing Dangling Modifiers……Page 410
Changing the Second Part of the Sentence……Page 414
Changing the Modifier……Page 415
Fixing Dangling Modifiers in Whole Paragraphs……Page 417
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 419
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 421
Recognizing Standard and Nonstandard Verbs……Page 422
The “Myth” of Learning Verbs……Page 423
Grabbing onto the Slippery -s……Page 425
Recognizing Irregular Present Tense Verbs: Be, Have, and Do……Page 426
Keeping an Eye on the Elusive -ed……Page 428
Irregular Past Tense Verbs……Page 429
Memorizing Irregular Past Tense Verbs……Page 434
Subject-Verb Agreement Errors……Page 435
Verbs Separated from the Subject……Page 436
Verbs before the Subject……Page 437
Verbs with Compound Subjects……Page 438
Indefinite Pronoun Subjects……Page 439
Errors Based on Pronunciation……Page 440
Shifts in Verb Tense……Page 441
Shifts When Describing Historical Events……Page 443
Shifts When Telling a Story……Page 444
Shifts in Voice……Page 450
Fixing Mixed Verb Errors in Whole Paragraphs……Page 452
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 454
WHAT DO YOU KNOW?……Page 456
Types of Pronouns……Page 457
Specific versus General Pronouns……Page 458
Subject and Object Pronouns……Page 459
Why We Use Pronouns……Page 461
Unclear Reference……Page 462
Overuse of You……Page 464
Overuse of It……Page 467
Indefinite Pronouns and Generalizations……Page 468
Indefinite Pronouns and Awkward Agreement……Page 470
Problems with Subject versus Object Forms……Page 472
Problems with Collective Nouns……Page 474
Fixing Mixed Pronoun Errors in Whole Paragraphs……Page 475
BRINGING IT ALL TOGETHER……Page 477
PART FOUR A Writer’s Reader……Page 479
Sherman Alexie, The Joy of Reading and Writing: Superman and Me……Page 481
Lynda Barry, The Sanctuary of School……Page 485
Pius Kamau, A Duty to Heal……Page 489
Sarah Lin, Devotion……Page 491
Enrique Hank Lopez, Why Couldn’t My Father Read?……Page 494
Amy Tan, Four Directions……Page 497
Yolanda O’Bannon, Living What You Do Every Day……Page 501
Daniel Meier, About Men; One Man’s Kids……Page 503
Troy Chapman, Caring Makes Us Human……Page 507
Abigail Thomas, Comfort……Page 509
Gary Soto, The Jacket……Page 513
Yiyun Li, Passing Through……Page 516
Laura Rowley, As They Say, Drugs Kill……Page 520
Scott Russell Sanders, Under the Influence……Page 523
Appendix A: Punctuation and Capitalization……Page 527
Appendix B: Guidelines for ESL Writers……Page 540
Index……Page 557
Reference Material……Page 569
Quick Guide: Comma Usage……Page 570
Quick Guide: Fragments……Page 571
Quick Guide: Run-Ons and Comma Splices……Page 572
Quick Guide: Sentence Combining……Page 573
Quick Guide: Correct Verb Usage……Page 574
Correction Symbols……Page 575
Helpful Lists, Charts, and Visuals……Page 576

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