Psychology 14th Edition by Carole Wade, ISBN-13: 978-0134240831



Psychology 14th Edition by Carole Wade, ISBN-13: 978-0134240831

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  • Publisher: ‎ Pearson; 14th edition
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 744 pages
  • ISBN-10: 0138061939
  • ISBN-13: 978-0138061937

Psychology presents an inclusive introduction to psychological science that emphasizes critical thinking and human diversity. The authors integrate modern pop culture references and coverage of real-world events throughout the text, making the study of psychology more accessible and relatable. The text helps readers learn to think like psychologists, and shows why scientific and critical thinking is so important to the decisions we make in our own lives.

The 14th Edition offers updated coverage of contemporary topics such as the prevalence and impact of sleep loss. New Revisiting the Classics features examine well-known studies from classic psychology. And new Replication Check features highlight noteworthy research findings.

Table of Contents:

Title Page
Copyright Page
DEI Page
Brief Contents
About This Course
Content Highlights
About the Authors
Authors’ Acknowledgments
Learning Outcomes and Assessment
1 What Is Psychology?
1.1 Psychology, Pseudoscience, and the Perils of Common Sense
1.1.A What Psychology Is
1.1.B What Psychology Is Not
1.2 Thinking Critically About Psychology
1.2.A What Is Critical Thinking?
1.2.B Critical Thinking Steps
1.3 A History of Psychology: From the Armchair to the Laboratory
1.3.A The Forerunners of Modern Psychology
1.3.B The Birth of Modern Psychology
Revisiting the Classics: Sigmund Freud
1.4 Psychological Science Perspectives
1.4.A Pillars of Modern Psychology
1.4.B Gender, Race, and Diversity in Psychology
Taking Psychology with You: Using Psychology to Study Psychology
1.5 What Psychologists Do
1.5.A Psychological Research
1.5.B Psychological Practice
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: That’s Just Fake News!
2 How Psychologists Do Research
2.1 What Makes Psychological Research Scientific?
2.1.A Precision and Reliance on Empirical Evidence
2.1.B Skepticism
2.1.C Willingness to Make “Risky Predictions”
2.1.D Transparency
Replication Check
Taking Psychology with You: Distinguishing Real Science From Fake Science
2.2 Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts
2.2.A Finding a Sample
Revisiting the Classics: Convenience Sampling
2.2.B Case Studies
2.2.C Observational Studies
2.2.D Tests
2.2.E Surveys
2.2.F Cross-Cultural Studies
2.3 Correlational Studies: Looking for Relationships
2.3.A Measuring Correlations
2.3.B Cautions About Correlations
2.4 Experiments: Hunting for Causes
2.4.A Experimental Variables
2.4.B Experimental and Control Conditions
2.4.C Advantages and Limitations of Experiments
2.5 Evaluating the Findings
2.5.A Describing the Data
2.5.B Inferential Statistics
2.5.C Interpreting the Findings
2.6 Keeping the Enterprise Ethical
2.6.A The Ethics of Studying Humans
2.6.B The Ethics of Studying Animals
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Clever Hans the Horse Was a Math Whiz
3 Genes, Evolution, and Environment
3.1 Unlocking the Secrets of Genes
3.1.A The Human Genome
3.1.B Epigenetics
3.2 The Genetics of Similarity
3.2.A Evolution and Natural Selection
3.2.B Innate Human Characteristics
3.3 Our Human Heritage: Courtship and Mating
3.3.A Evolution and Sexual Strategies
3.3.B Thinking Critically About the Evolutionary View
3.4 The Genetics of Difference
3.4.A The Meaning of Heritability
3.4.B Computing Heritability
Taking Psychology with You: Should You Have Genetic Testing?
3.5 Our Human Diversity: The Case of Intelligence
3.5.A Genes and Individual Differences
Replication Check
3.5.B The Question of Group Differences
3.5.C The Environment and Intelligence
Revisiting the Classics: Lewis Terman and “The Termites”
3.5.D Beyond Nature Versus Nurture
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Astronaut Twins No Longer Genetically Identical After Space Tr
4 The Brain and the Nervous System
4.1 The Nervous System: A Basic Blueprint
4.1.A The Central Nervous System
4.1.B The Peripheral Nervous System
4.2 Communication in the Nervous System
4.2.A Types of Cells
4.2.B The Structure of the Neuron
4.2.C Neurogenesis: The Birth of Neurons
4.2.D How Neurons Communicate
4.2.E Chemical Messengers in the Nervous System
4.3 Mapping the Brain
4.3.A Manipulating the Brain and Observing Behavior
4.3.B Manipulating Behavior and Observing the Brain
4.4 A Tour Through the Brain
4.4.A The Brain Stem and Cerebellum
4.4.B The Thalamus
4.4.C The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland
4.4.D The Amygdala
4.4.E The Hippocampus
4.4.F The Cerebrum
4.4.G The Cerebral Cortex
4.5 The Two Hemispheres of the Brain
4.5.A Split Brains: A House Divided
Revisiting the Classics: Split-Brain Patient Studies
4.5.B The Two Hemispheres: Allies or Opponents?
Replication Check
4.6 The Flexible Brain
4.6.A Experience and the Brain
4.6.B Culture and the Brain
4.6.C Sex Differences in the Brain?
Taking Psychology with You: Thinking Twice About Tinkering With the Brain
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Computer-Based Brain Training Games Will Keep Your Brain Young
5 Sensation and Perception
5.1 Our Sensational Senses
5.1.A The Riddle of Separate Sensations
5.1.B Measuring the Senses
Replication Check
5.1.C Sensory Adaptation
Revisiting the Classics: Early Sensory Deprivation Studies
5.1.D Sensing Without Perceiving
5.2 Vision
5.2.A What We See
5.2.B An Eye on the World
5.2.C Why the Visual System Is Not a Camera
5.2.D How We See Colors
5.2.E Constructing the Visual World
Replication Check
5.3 Hearing
5.3.A What We Hear
5.3.B An Ear on the World
5.3.C Constructing the Auditory World
5.4 Other Senses
5.4.A Taste: Savory Sensations
5.4.B Smell: The Sense of Scents
5.4.C Senses of the Skin
5.4.D The Mystery of Pain
Taking Psychology with You: Why Perception Can Be More Than Meets the Eye
5.4.E The Environment Within
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: People Can Smell Fear
6 Consciousness and Sleep
6.1 Biological Rhythms: The Tides of Experience
6.1.A Circadian Rhythms
6.1.B Moods and Long-Term Rhythms
6.2 The Rhythms of Sleep
6.2.A The Realms of Sleep
Replication Check
6.2.B Why We Sleep
Revisiting the Classics: Extreme Sleep Deprivation Studies
Taking Psychology with You: Improving the Quality (and Quantity) of Your Sleep
6.3 Exploring the Dream World
6.3.A Explanations of Dreaming
6.3.B Evaluating Dream Theories
6.4 The Riddle of Hypnosis
6.4.A The Nature of Hypnosis
6.4.B Theories of Hypnosis
Replication Check
6.5 Consciousness-Altering Drugs
6.5.A Classifying Drugs
6.5.B The Physiology of Drug Effects
6.5.C The Psychology of Drug Effects
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: When You’re Stumped by a Problem, You Should “Sleep on It
7 Learning
7.1 Classical Conditioning
7.1.A New Reflexes From Old
7.1.B Principles of Classical Conditioning
7.1.C What Is Actually Learned in Classical Conditioning?
7.2 Classical Conditioning in Real Life
7.2.A Learning to Like
7.2.B Learning to Fear
Revisiting the Classics: Little Albert
Replication Check
7.2.C Accounting for Taste
7.2.D Reacting to Medical Treatments
Replication Check
7.3 Operant Conditioning
7.3.A The Birth of Radical Behaviorism
7.3.B The Consequences of Behavior
7.4 Principles of Operant Conditioning
7.4.A The Importance of Responses
7.4.B Skinner: The Man and the Myth
7.5 Operant Conditioning in Real Life
Taking Psychology with You: Changing Your Behavior
7.5.A The Pros and Cons of Punishment
7.5.B The Problems With Reward
7.6 Learning and the Mind
7.6.A Latent Learning
7.6.B Social-Cognitive Learning Theories
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Kids Who Play Violent Video Games Learn to Be More Violent
8 Memory
8.1 In Pursuit of Memory
8.1.A Measuring Memory
Replication Check
8.1.B Models of Memory
8.2 The Three-Box Model of Memory
8.2.A The Sensory Register: Fleeting Impressions
8.2.B Working Memory: Memory’s Notepad
Revisiting the Classics: The Magical Number 7 (± 2)
8.2.C Long-Term Memory: Memory’s Storage System
Replication Check
8.3 The Biology of Memory
8.3.A Changes in Neurons and Synapses
8.3.B Where Memories Are Made
8.3.C Hormones, Emotion, and Memory
8.4 How We Remember
8.4.A Encoding, Rehearsal, and Retrieval
Taking Psychology with You: Making Memory Work for You
8.5 Why We Forget
8.5.A Mechanisms of Forgetting
8.5.B Childhood Amnesia: The Missing Years
8.5.C The Repression Controversy
8.6 Reconstructing the Past
8.6.A The Manufacture of Memory
8.6.B The Conditions of Confabulation
Replication Check
8.6.C The Eyewitness on Trial
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: This Herbal Supplement Has Been Clinically Proven to Boost Mem
9 Thinking and Intelligence
9.1 Thought: Using What We Know
9.1.A The Elements of Cognition
9.1.B How Conscious Is Thought?
9.1.C Reasoning Rationally
9.2 Barriers to Reasoning Rationally
9.2.A Exaggerating the Improbable
Replication Check
9.2.B Avoiding Loss
Replication Check
9.2.C Biases and Mental Sets
Revisiting the Classics: Pygmalion in the Classroom
9.2.D Overcoming Our Cognitive Biases
9.3 Measuring Intelligence
9.3.A Measuring the Invisible
9.3.B The IQ Test
9.3.C Elements of Intelligence
9.3.D Motivation, Hard Work, and Intellectual Success
Taking Psychology with You: Bolstering Your Focus and Creativity
9.4 Animal Minds
9.4.A Animal Intelligence
9.4.B Animals and Language
9.4.C Thinking About the Thinking of Animals
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Different People Have Different Learning Styles
10 The Major Motives: Food, Love, Sex, and Work
10.1 Motivation and the Hungry Animal
10.1.A Defining Motivation
Revisiting the Classics: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
10.1.B The Biology of Weight
10.1.C Environmental Influences on Weight
10.1.D The Body as Battleground: Eating Disorders
Replication Check
10.2 The Social Animal: Motives to Love
10.2.A The Biology of Love
10.2.B The Psychology of Love
10.2.C Gender, Culture, and Love
10.3 The Erotic Animal: Motives for Sex
10.3.A The Biology of Desire
Replication Check
10.3.B Biology and Sexual Orientation
10.3.C The Psychology of Desire
10.3.D Gender, Culture, and Sex
10.4 The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve
10.4.A The Effects of Motivation on Work
10.4.B The Effects of Work on Motivation
10.4.C The Pursuit of Happiness
Taking Psychology with You: Rethinking Motivation in the Modern Era
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: More College Students Than Ever Are “Hooking Up” for Casua
11 Emotion, Stress, and Health
11.1 The Nature of Emotion
11.1.A Emotion and the Face
Replication Check
11.1.B Emotion and the Brain
11.1.C Emotion and the Mind
Revisiting the Classics: Schachter & Singer (1962)
11.2 Emotion and Culture
11.2.A How Culture Shapes Emotions
11.2.B Communicating Emotions
11.2.C Gender and Emotion
11.3 The Nature of Stress
11.3.A Stress and the Body
11.3.B Stress and the Mind
11.4 Stress and Emotion
11.4.A Hostility and Depression: Do They Hurt?
Replication Check
11.4.B Positive Emotions: Do They Help?
11.4.C Emotional Inhibition and Expression
11.5 Coping With Stress
11.5.A Solving the Problem
11.5.B Rethinking the Problem
11.5.C Drawing on Social Support
Taking Psychology with You: How Much Control Do We Have Over Our Emotions and Our Health?
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Emotional Support Animals Reduce Psychological Distress
12 Development Over the Lifespan
12.1 From Conception Through the First Year
12.1.A Prenatal Development
12.1.B The Infant’s World
Replication Check
12.1.C Attachment
Revisiting the Classics: Ainsworth’s Strange Situation
12.2 Cognitive Development
12.2.A Thinking
12.2.B Language
Replication Check
12.3 Moral Development
12.3.A Stages of Morality
12.3.B Getting Children to Be Good
12.4 Gender Development
12.4.A Gender Identity
12.4.B Influences on Gender Development
12.5 Adolescence
12.5.A The Physiology of Adolescence
12.5.B The Psychology of Adolescence
12.6 Adulthood
12.6.A Stages and Ages
12.6.B The Transitions of Life
12.6.C Old Age
Taking Psychology with You: Remember That Development Lasts a Lifetime
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: The Marshmallow Test Predicts Success Later in Life
13 Social Psychology
13.1 Social Beliefs
13.1.A Attributions
Replication Check
13.1.B Attitudes
13.1.C Cognitive Dissonance
13.1.D Persuasion or “Brainwashing”? Suicide Bombers, Cults, and Conspiracy Theorists
13.2 Social Forces
13.2.A Rules and Roles
13.2.B The Power of Situations
Replication Check
Revisiting the Classics: The Stanford Prison Experiment
13.2.C Why People Obey
13.3 Individuals in Groups
13.3.A Conformity
13.3.B Groupthink
13.3.C The Bystander Effect
13.3.D Altruism and Dissent
Taking Psychology with You: Becoming a More Conscientious and Engaged Social Being
13.4 Us Versus Them: Group Identity and Conflict
13.4.A Social Identity
13.4.B In-Groups and Out-Groups
13.4.C Stereotypes
13.5 Prejudice
13.5.A The Origins of Prejudice
13.5.B Measuring Prejudice
13.5.C Reducing Conflict and Prejudice
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Police Treat Black and White Civilians Differently
14 Theories of Personality
14.1 Psychodynamic Theories of Personality
14.1.A Freud and Psychoanalysis
14.1.B Other Psychodynamic Approaches
14.1.C Evaluating Psychodynamic Theories
14.2 The Modern Study of Personality
14.2.A Popular Personality Tests
Revisiting the Classics: The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
14.2.B Core Personality Traits
Replication Check
14.3 Genetic Influences on Personality
14.3.A Heredity and Temperament
14.3.B Heredity and Traits
Replication Check
14.4 Environmental Influences on Personality
14.4.A Situations and Social Learning
14.4.B Parental Influence—and Its Limits
14.4.C The Power of Peers
14.5 Cultural Influences on Personality
14.5.A Culture, Values, and Traits
14.5.B Evaluating Cultural Approaches
14.6 The Inner Experience
14.6.A Humanist Approaches
14.6.B Narrative Approaches
14.6.C Evaluating Humanist and Narrative Approaches
Taking Psychology with You: Thinking Scientifically About Personality
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Young People Today Are More Narcissistic Than Ever
15 Psychological Disorders
15.1 Diagnosing Mental Disorders
15.1.A Dilemmas of Definition
15.1.B Dilemmas of Diagnosis
Revisiting the Classics: Rosenhan (1973)
15.1.C Psychological Assessment
15.2 Depressive and Bipolar Disorders
15.2.A Depression
Replication Check
15.2.B Bipolar Disorder
15.2.C Origins of Depression
Replication Check
15.3 Anxiety Disorders
15.3.A Anxiety and Panic
15.3.B Fears and Phobias
15.4 Trauma and Obsessive–Compulsive Disorders
15.4.A Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Replication Check
15.4.B Obsessions and Compulsions
15.5 Personality Disorders
15.5.A Borderline Personality Disorder
15.5.B Antisocial Personality Disorder
15.5.C Psychopathy: Myths and Evidence
15.6 Addictive Disorders
15.6.A Biology and Addiction
15.6.B Learning, Culture, and Addiction
15.7 Dissociative Identity Disorder
15.7.A A Controversial Diagnosis
15.7.B Thinking Critically About DID
15.8 Schizophrenia
15.8.A Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Taking Psychology with You: Thinking More Clearly About Mental Disorders
15.8.B Origins of Schizophrenia
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Smartphone Use Can Become an Addiction
16 Approaches to Treatment and Therapy
16.1 Biological Treatments for Mental Disorders
16.1.A The Question of Medication
16.1.B Direct Brain Intervention
Revisiting the Classics: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
16.2 Major Schools of Psychotherapy
16.2.A Psychodynamic Therapy
16.2.B Behavior and Cognitive Therapy
Replication Check
16.2.C Humanist and Existential Therapy
16.2.D Family and Couples Therapy
16.3 Evaluating Psychotherapy
16.3.A The Scientist–Practitioner Gap
16.3.B When Therapy Helps
16.3.C When Interventions Harm
16.3.D Culture and Psychotherapy
Taking Psychology with You: Becoming a Smart Consumer of Psychological Treatments
Epilogue: Taking This Text With You
Critical Thinking Illustrated: Claim: Learning About Psychological Methods and Findings Can Make You
Name Index
Subject Index

Carole Wade earned her Ph.D. in cognitive psychology at Stanford University. She began her academic career at the University of New Mexico, where she taught courses in psycholinguistics and developed the first course at the university on the psychology of gender. She was professor of psychology for 10 years at San Diego Mesa College and then taught at College of Marin and Dominican University of California. Dr. Wade has written and lectured widely on critical thinking and the enhancement of psychology education. In addition to this text, she and Carol Tavris have written Psychology; Psychology in Perspective; and The Longest War: Sex Differences in Perspective.

Carol Tavris earned her Ph.D. in the interdisciplinary program in social psychology at the University of Michigan. She writes and lectures extensively on diverse topics in psychological science and critical thinking. In addition to working with Carole Wade, Dr. Tavris is coauthor with Elliot Aronson of Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts. She is also author of The Mismeasure of Woman and Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion. Many of her book reviews and opinion essays have been collected in Psychobabble and Biobunk: Using Psychology to Think Critically About Issues in the News.

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