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Educational Psychology 14th Global Edition by Anita Woolfolk, ISBN-13: 978-1292331522

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Educational Psychology 14th Global Edition by Anita Woolfolk, ISBN-13: 978-1292331522

[PDF eBook eTextbook]

  • Publisher: ‎ Pearson (June 8, 2020)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 768 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 1292331526
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-1292331522

For Introduction to Educational Psychology courses.

Forty-four easy-to-read modules facilitate students’ learning and retention

In clear and jargon-free prose, Educational Psychology: Active Learning Edition, 14th Edition, explains and illustrates educational psychology’s practical relevance for teachers and learners. Theory and practice are considered together, showing how research on child development, learning, cognition, motivation, instruction, and assessment can be applied to solve the everyday problems of teaching. The 14th Edition offers a state-of-the-art presentation of the field of educational psychology, with new and expanded coverage of important topics like the brain, neuroscience, and teaching; the impact of technology and virtual learning environments on the lives of students and teachers; and diversity in today’s classrooms.

Table of Contents:

Cover
Title
Copyright
Dedication
Preface
Acknowledgments
Global Edition Acknowledgments
Brief Contents
Contents
CHAPTER 1 Learning, Teaching, and Educational Psychology
Teachers’ Casebook—Leaving No Student Behind: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Learning and Teaching Today
Students Today: Dramatic Diversity and Remarkable Technology
Confidence in Every Context
High Expectations for Teachers and Students
Do Teachers Make a Difference?
Teacher–Student Relationships
The Cost of Poor Teaching
What is Good Teaching?
Inside Three Classrooms
A Bilingual First Grade
A Suburban Fifth Grade
An Inclusive Class
So What is Good Teaching?
Models of Good Teaching: Teacher Observation and Evaluation
Beginning Teachers
The Role of Educational Psychology
In the Beginning: Linking Educational Psychology and Teaching
Educational Psychology Today
Is It Just Common Sense?
Helping Students
Answer Based on Research
Skipping Grades
Answer Based on Research
Students in Control
Answer Based on Research
Obvious Answers?
Using Research to Understand and Improve Learning
Correlation Studies
Experimental Studies
ABAB Experimental Designs
Clinical Interviews and Case Studies
Ethnography
The Role of Time in Research
What’s The Evidence? Quantitative versus Qualitative Research
Mixed Methods Research
Scientifically Based Research and Evidence-Based Practices
Teachers as Researchers
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Kind of Research Should Guide Education?
Theories for Teaching
Supporting Student Learning
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Leaving No Student Behind: What Would They Do?
PART I STUDENTS
CHAPTER 2 Cognitive Development
Teachers’ Casebook—Symbols and Cymbals: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
A Definition of Development
Three Questions Across the Theories
What Is the Source of Development? Nature versus Nurture
What Is the Shape of Development? Continuity versus Discontinuity
Timing: Is It Too Late? Critical versus Sensitive Periods
Beware of Either/Or
General Principles of Development
The Brain and Cognitive Development
The Developing Brain: Neurons
The Developing Brain: Cerebral Cortex
Brain Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Putting It All Together: How the Brain Works
Culture and Brain Plasticity
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Brain-Based Education
Neuroscience, Learning, and Teaching
Does Instruction Affect Brain Development?
The Brain and Learning to Read
Emotions, Learning, and the Brain
Lessons for Teachers: General Principles
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Influences on Development
Basic Tendencies in Thinking
Organization
Adaptation
Equilibration
Four Stages of Cognitive Development
Infancy: the Sensorimotor Stage
Early Childhood to the Early Elementary Years: The Preoperational Stage
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Helping Families Care for Preoperational Children
Later Elementary to the Middle School Years: The Concrete-Operational Stage
GUIDELINES: Teaching the Concrete-Operational Child
High School and College: Formal Operations
Do We All Reach the Fourth Stage?
Some Limitations of Piaget’s Theory
The Trouble with Stages
GUIDELINES: Helping Students to Use Formal Operations
Underestimating Children’s Abilities
Cognitive Development and Culture
Information Processing, Neo-Piagetian, and Neuroscience Views of Cognitive Development
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective
The Social Sources of Individual Thinking
Cultural Tools and Cognitive Development
Technical Tools in a Digital Age
Psychological Tools
The Role of Language and Private Speech
Private Speech: Vygotsky’s and Piaget’s Views Compared
The Zone of Proximal Development
Private Speech and the Zone
The Role of Learning and Development
Limitations of Vygotsky’s Theory
Implications of Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories for Teachers
Piaget: What Can We Learn?
Understanding and Building on Students’ Thinking
Activity and Constructing Knowledge
Vygotsky: What Can We Learn?
The Role of Adults and Peers
Assisted Learning
An Example Curriculum: Tools of the Mind
Reaching Every Student: Teaching in the “Magic Middle”
Cognitive Development: Lessons forTeachers
GUIDELINES: Applying Vygotsky’s Ideas in Teaching
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Symbols and Cymbals: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 3 The Self, Social, and Moral Development
Teachers’ Casebook—Mean Girls: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Physical Development
Physical and Motor Development
Young Children
Elementary School Years
The Adolescent Years
Early and Later Maturing
GUIDELINES: Dealing with Physical Differences in the Classroom
Play, Recess, and Physical Activity
Cultural Differences in Play
Exercise and Recess
Reaching Every Student: Inclusive Athletics
Challenges in Physical Development
Obesity
Eating Disorders
GUIDELINES: Supporting Positive Body Images in Adolescents
Bronfenbrenner: The Social Context for Development
The Importance of Context and the Bioecological Model
Families
Family Structure
Parenting Styles
Culture and Parenting
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Connecting with Families
Attachment
Divorce
GUIDELINES: Helping Children of Divorce
Peers
Cliques
Crowds
Peer Cultures
Friendships
Popularity
Causes and Consequences of Rejection
Aggression
Relational Aggression
Media, Modeling, and Aggression
GUIDELINES: Dealing with Aggression and Encouraging Cooperation
Video Games and Aggressive Behavior
Reaching Every Student: Teacher Support
Academic and Personal Caring
Teachers and Child Abuse
Society and Media
Identity and Self-Concept
Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development
The Preschool Years: Trust, Autonomy, and Initiative
The Elementary and Middle School Years: Industry versus Inferiority
GUIDELINES: Encouraging Initiative and Industry
Adolescence: The Search for Identity
Identity and Technology
Beyond the School Years
Racial and Ethnic Identity
GUIDELINES: Supporting Identity Formation
Multidimensional and Flexible Ethnic Identities
Black Racial Identity: Outcome and Process
Racial and Ethnic Pride
Self-Concept
The Structure of Self-Concept
How Self-Concept Develops
Self-Concept and Achievement
Sex Differences in Self-Concept of Academic Competence
Self-Esteem
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Should Schools Do to Encourage Students’ Self-Esteem?
Understanding Others and Moral Development
Theory of Mind and Intention
Moral Development
Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development
Criticisms of Kohlberg’s Theory
Moral Judgments, Social Conventions, and Personal Choices
Moral versus Conventional Domains
Implications for Teachers
Beyond Reasoning: Haidt’s Social Intuitionist Model of Moral Psychology
Moral Behavior and the Example of Cheating
Who Cheats?
Dealing with Cheating
Personal/Social Development: Lessons for Teachers
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Mean Girls: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 4 Learner Differences and Learning Needs
Teachers’ Casebook—Including Every student: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Intelligence
Language and Labels
Disabilities and Handicaps
Person-First Language
Possible Biases in the Application of Labels
What Does Intelligence Mean?
Intelligence: One Ability or Many?
Another View: Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
What Are These Intelligences?
Critics of Multiple Intelligences Theory
Gardner Responds
Multiple Intelligences Go to School
Multiple Intelligences: Lessons for Teachers
Another View: Sternberg’s Successful Intelligence
Neuroscience and Intelligence
Measuring Intelligence
Binet’s Dilemma
What Does an IQ Score Mean?
Group versus Individual IQ Tests
The Flynn Effect: Are We Getting Smarter?
GUIDELINES: Interpreting IQ Scores
Intelligence and Achievement
Gender Differences in Intelligence and Achievement
Heredity or Environment?
Learning to Be Intelligent: Being Smart About IQ
Creativity: What It Is and Why It Matters
Assessing Creativity
OK, But So What: Why Does Creativity Matter?
What Are the Sources of Creativity?
Creativity and Cognition
Creativity and Diversity
Creativity in the Classroom
Brainstorming
Creative Schools
GUIDELINES: Applying and Encouraging Creativity
Learning Styles
Learning Styles/Preferences
Cautions About Learning Styles
The Value of Considering Learning Styles
Beyond Either/Or
Individual Differences and the Law
IDEA
Least Restrictive Environment
Individualized Education Program
The Rights of Students and Families
Section 504 Protections
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Productive Conferences
Students with Learning Challenges
Neuroscience and Learning Challenges
Students with Learning Disabilities
Student Characteristics
Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities
Students with Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders
Definitions
Treating ADHD with Drugs
Alternatives/Additions to Drug Treatments
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Pills or Skills for Children with ADHD?
Lessons for Teachers: Learning Disabilities and ADHD
Students with Communication Disorders
Speech Disorders
Language Disorders
Students with Emotional or Behavioral Difficulties
Suicide
GUIDELINES: Disciplining Students with Emotional Problems
Drug Abuse
Prevention
Students with Intellectual Disabilities
GUIDELINES: Teaching Students with Intellectual Disabilities
Students with Health and Sensory Impairments
Cerebral Palsy and Multiple Disabilities
Seizure Disorders (Epilepsy)
Other Serious Health Concerns: Asthma, Sickle Cell Disease, and Diabetes
Students with Vision Impairments
Students Who Are Deaf
Autism Spectrum Disorders and Asperger Syndrome
Interventions
Response to Intervention
Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
Who Are These Students?
What Is the Origin of These Gifts?
What Problems Do Students Who Are Gifted Face?
Identifying Students Who Are Gifted and Talented
Recognizing Gifts and Talents
Teaching Students with Gifts and Talents
Acceleration
Methods and Strategies
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Including Every Student: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 5 Language Development, Language Diversity, and Immigrant Education
Teachers’ Casebook—Cultures Clash in the Classroom: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
The Development of Language
What Develops? Language and Cultural Differences
The Puzzle of Language
Beware of Either/Or Choices
When and How Does Language Develop?
Sounds and Pronunciation
Vocabulary and Meaning
Grammar and Syntax
Pragmatics: Using Language in Social Situations
Metalinguistic Awareness
Emergent Literacy
Inside-Out and Outside-In Skills
Building a Foundation
When There Are Persistent Problems
Emergent Literacy and Language Diversity
Languages and Emergent Literacy
Bilingual Emergent Literacy
GUIDELINES: Supporting Language and Promoting Literacy
Diversity in Language Development
Dual-Language Development
Second-Language Learning
Benefits of Bilingualism
Language Loss
Signed Languages
What Is Involved in Being Bilingual?
Contextualized and Academic Language
GUIDELINES: Promoting Language Learning
Dialect Differences in the Classroom
Dialects
Dialects and Pronunciation
Dialects and Teaching
Genderlects
Teaching Immigrant Students
Immigrants and Refugees
Classrooms Today
Four Student Profiles
Generation 1.5: Students in Two Worlds
Affective and Emotional/Social Considerations
Working with Families: Using the Tools of the Culture
GUIDELINES: Providing Emotional Support and Increasing Self-Esteem for Students Who Are ELLs
Funds of Knowledge and Welcome Centers
Student-Led Conferences
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Welcoming All Families
Teaching Immigrant Students Who Are English Language Learners
Two Approaches to English Language Learning
Research on Bilingual Education
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What Is the Best Way to Teach Students Who Are ELLs?
Visual Strategies
Literature Response Groups
Bilingualism for All: Two-Way Immersion
Sheltered Instruction
Special Challenges: Students Who Are English Language Learners with Disabilities and Special Gifts
Students Who Are English Language Learners with Disabilities
Reaching Every Student: Recognizing Giftedness in Bilingual Students
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Cultures Clash in the Classroom: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 6 Culture and Diversity
Teachers’ Casebook—White Girls Club: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Today’s Diverse Classrooms
American Cultural Diversity
Meet Two More Students
Cautions: Interpreting Cultural Differences
Cultural Conflicts and Compatibilities
Dangers in Stereotyping
Economic and Social Class Differences
Social Class and Socioeconomic Status
Extreme Poverty: Homeless and Highly Mobile Students
Poverty and School Achievement
Health, Environment, and Stress
Low Expectations—Low Academic Self-Concept
Peer Influences and Resistance Cultures
Home Environment and Resources
Summer Setbacks
GUIDELINES: Teaching Students Who Live in Poverty
Tracking: Poor Teaching
Ethnicity and Race in Teaching and Learning
Terms: Ethnicity and Race
Ethnic and Racial Differences in School Achievement
The Legacy of Inequality
What Is Prejudice?
The Development of Prejudice
From Prejudice to Discrimination
Stereotype Threat
Who Is Affected by Stereotype Threat?
Short-Term Effects: Test Performance
Long-Term Effects: Disidentification
Combating Stereotype Threat and Discrimination
Gender in Teaching and Learning
Sex and Gender
Gender Identity
Gender Roles
Gender Bias in Curriculum Materials and Media
Gender Bias in Teaching
Sexual Orientation
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Girls and Boys Be Taught Differently?
Discrimination Based on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation
GUIDELINES: Avoiding Gender Bias in Teaching
Creating Culturally Compatible Classrooms
Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
Self-Agency Strand
Relationship Strand
Diversity in Learning
Social Organization
Cultural Values and Learning Preferences
Cautions (Again) About Learning Styles/Preferences Research
Sociolinguistics
Cultural Discontinuity
Lessons for Teachers: Teaching Every Student
Know Yourself
Know Your Students
Respect Your Students
Teach Your Students
GUIDELINES: Culturally Relevant Teaching
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—White Girls Club: What Would They Do?
PART II LEARNING AND MOTIVATION
CHAPTER 7 Behavioral Views of Learning
Teachers’ Casebook—Sick of Class: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Understanding Learning
Ethical Issues
Goals
Strategies
Learning Is Not Always What It Seems
Early Explanations of Learning: Contiguity and Classical Conditioning
GUIDELINES: Applying Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning: Trying New Responses
Types of Consequences
Reinforcement
Punishment
Neuroscience of Reinforcement and Punishment
Reinforcement Schedules
Extinction
Antecedents and Behavior Change
Effective Instruction Delivery
Cueing
Putting It All Together: Applied Behavior Analysis
Methods for Encouraging Behaviors
Reinforcing with Teacher Attention
Selecting Reinforcers: The Premack Principle
GUIDELINES: Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Praise Appropriately
Shaping
Positive Practice
GUIDELINES: Applying Operant Conditioning: Encouraging Positive Behaviors
Contingency Contracts, Token Reinforcement, and Group Consequences
Contingency Contracts
Token Reinforcement Systems
Group Consequences
Handling Undesirable Behavior
Negative Reinforcement
Reprimands
Response Cost
Social Isolation
Some Cautions About Punishment
GUIDELINES: Applying Operant Conditioning: Using Punishment
Reaching Every Student: Severe Behavior Problems
Current Applications: Functional Behavioral Assessment, Positive Behavior Supports, and Self-Management
Discovering the “Why”: Functional Behavioral Assessments
Positive Behavior Supports
Self-Management
Goal Setting
Monitoring and Evaluating Progress
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Applying Operant Conditioning: Student Self-Management
Self-Reinforcement
Challenges and Criticisms
Beyond Behaviorism: Bandura’s Challenge and Observational Learning
Enactive and Observational Learning
Learning and Performance
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Students Be Rewarded for Learning?
Criticisms of Behavioral Methods
Behavioral Approaches: Lessons for Teachers
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Sick of Class: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 8 Cognitive Views of Learning
Teachers’ Casebook—Remembering the Basics: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Elements of the Cognitive Perspective
The Brain and Cognitive Learning
The Importance of Knowledge in Cognition
General and Specific Knowledge
Declarative, Procedural, and Self-Regulatory Knowledge
Cognitive Views of Memory
Sensory Memory
Capacity, Duration, and Contents of Sensory Memory
Perception
The Role of Attention
Attention and Multitasking
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: What’s Wrong with Multitasking?
Attention and Teaching
GUIDELINES: Gaining and Maintaining Attention
Working Memory
Capacity of Working Memory
The Central Executive
The Phonological Loop
The Visuospatial Sketchpad
The Episodic Buffer
The Duration and Contents of Working Memory
Cognitive Load and Retaining Information
Two Kinds of Cognitive Load
Retaining Information in Working Memory
Levels of Processing Theory
Forgetting
Individual Differences in Working Memory
Developmental Differences
Individual Differences
Is Working Memory Really Separate?
Long-Term Memory
Capacity and Duration of Long-Term Memory
Contents of Long-Term Memory: Explicit (Declarative) Memories
Propositions and Propositional Networks
Images
Two Are Better Than One: Words and Images
Concepts
Prototypes, Exemplars, and Theory-Based Categories
Teaching Concepts
Schemas
Episodic Memory
Contents of Long-Term Memory: Implicit Memories
Retrieving Information in Long-Term Memory
Spreading Activation
Reconstruction
Forgetting and Long-Term Memory
Individual Differences in Long-Term Memory
Teaching for Deep, Long-Lasting Knowledge: Basic Principles and Applications
Constructing Declarative Knowledge: Making Meaningful Connections
Elaboration
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Organizing Learning
Organization
Imagery
Context
Desirable Difficulty
Effective Practice
Reaching Every Student: Make it Meaningful
Mnemonics
If You Have to Memorize . . .
Lessons for Teachers: Declarative Knowledge
Development of Procedural Knowledge
Automated Basic Skills
GUIDELINES: Helping Students Understand and Remember
Domain-Specific Strategies
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Remembering the Basics: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 9 Complex Cognitive Processes
Teachers’ Casebook—Uncritical Thinking: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Metacognition
Metacognitive Knowledge and Regulation
Individual Differences in Metacognition
Lessons for Teachers: Developing Metacognition
Metacognitive Development for Younger Students
Metacognitive Development for Secondary and College Students (Like You)
Learning Strategies
Being Strategic About Learning
Deciding What Is Important
Summaries
Underlining and Highlighting
Taking Notes
Visual Tools for Organizing
Retrieval Practice: Powerful But Underused
Reading Strategies
Applying Learning Strategies
Appropriate Tasks
Valuing Learning
Effort and Efficacy
Reaching Every Student: Teaching How to Learn
Problem Solving
Identifying: Problem Finding
Defining Goals and Representing the Problem
Focusing Attention on What Is Relevant
Understanding the Words
Understanding the Whole Problem
Translation and Schema Training: Direct Instruction in Schemas
Translation and Schema Training: Worked Examples
Worked Examples and Embodied Cognition
The Results of Problem Representation
Searching for Possible Solution Strategies
Algorithms
Heuristics
Anticipating, Acting, and Looking Back
Factors That Hinder Problem Solving
Some Problems with Heuristics
GUIDELINES: Applying Problem Solving
Expert Knowledge and Problem Solving
Knowing What Is Important
Memory for Patterns and Organization
Procedural Knowledge
Planning and Monitoring
GUIDELINES: Becoming an Expert Student
Critical Thinking and Argumentation
What Critical Thinkers Do: Paul and Elder Model
Applying Critical Thinking in Specific Subjects
Argumentation
Two Styles of Argumentation
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Schools Teach Critical Thinking and Problem Solving?
Lessons for Teachers
Teaching for Transfer
The Many Views of Transfer
Teaching for Positive Transfer
What Is Worth Learning?
Lessons for Teachers: Supporting Transfer
Stages of Transfer for Strategies
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Promoting Transfer
Bringing It All Together: Teaching for Complex Learning and Robust Knowledge
What Is Robust Knowledge?
Recognizing and Assessing Robust Knowledge
Teaching for Robust Knowledge
Practice
Worked Examples
Analogies
Self-Explanations
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Uncritical Thinking: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 10 Constructivism and Designing Learning Environments
Teachers’ Casebook—Learning to Cooperate: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Cognitive and Social Constructivism
Constructivist Views of Learning
Cognitive Constructivism
Social Constructivism
How Is Knowledge Constructed?
Knowledge: Situated or General?
Common Elements of Constructivist Student-Centered Teaching
Complex Learning Environments and Authentic Tasks
Social Negotiation
Multiple Perspectives and Representations of Content
Understanding the Knowledge Construction Process
Student Ownership of Learning
Designing Constructivist Learning Environments
Assumptions to Guide the Design of Learning Environments
Facilitating in a Constructivist Classroom
Scaffolding
Advance Organizers as Scaffolding
Facilitating Through Asking and Answering Deep Questions
GUIDELINES: Facilitating Deep Questioning
Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning
Examples of Inquiry
Problem-Based Learning
Research on Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning
Being Smart About Problem-Based Learning
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Are Inquiry and Problem-Based Learning Effective Teaching Approaches?
Cognitive Apprenticeships and Reciprocal Teaching
Cognitive Apprenticeships in Reading: Reciprocal Teaching
Applying Reciprocal Teaching
Collaboration and Cooperation
Collaboration, Group Work, and Cooperative Learning
Beyond Groups to Cooperation
What Can Go Wrong: Misuses of Group Learning
Tasks for Cooperative Learning
Highly Structured, Review, and Skill-Building Tasks
Ill-Structured, Conceptual, and Problem-Solving Tasks
Social Skills and Communication Tasks
Setting Up Cooperative Groups
Assigning Roles
Giving and Receiving Explanations
Designs for Cooperation
Reciprocal Questioning
Jigsaw
Constructive/Structured Controversies
Reaching Every Student: Using Cooperative Learning Wisely
GUIDELINES: Using Cooperative Learning
Dilemmas of Constructivist Practice
Designing Learning Environments in a Digital World
Technology and Learning
Technology-Rich Environments
Virtual Learning Environments
Personal Learning Environments
Immersive Virtual Learning Environments
Games
Developmentally Appropriate Computer Activities for Young Children
Computational Thinking and Coding
GUIDELINES: Using Computers
Media/Digital Literacy
GUIDELINES: Supporting the Development of Media Literacy
The Flipped Classroom
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Learning to Cooperate: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 11 Social Cognitive Views of Learning and Motivation
Teachers’ Casebook—Failure to Self-Regulate: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Social Cognitive Theory
A Self-Directed Life: Albert Bandura
Beyond Behaviorism
Triadic Reciprocal Causality
Modeling: Learning by Observing Others
Elements of Observational Learning
Attention
Retention
Production
Motivation and Reinforcement
Observational Learning in Teaching
Directing Attention
Fine Tuning Already-Learned Behaviors
Strengthening or Weakening Inhibitions
Teaching New Behaviors
Arousing Emotion
GUIDELINES: Using Observational Learning
Agency and Self-Efficacy
Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem
Sources of Self-Efficacy
Self-Efficacy in Learning and Teaching
GUIDELINES: Encouraging Self-Efficacy
Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy
Self-Regulated Learning: Skill and Will
What Influences Self-Regulation?
Knowledge
Motivation
Volition
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Are “Grittier” Students More Successful?
Development of Self-Regulation
A Social Cognitive Model of Self-Regulated Learning
Reaching Every Student: Examples of Self-Regulation in Two Classrooms
Writing
Math Problem Solving
Technology and Self-Regulation
Another Approach to Self-Regulation: Cognitive Behavior Modification
Emotional Self-Regulation
GUIDELINES: Encouraging Emotional Self-Regulation
Teaching Toward Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning
Teacher Stress, Efficacy, and Self-Regulated Learning
Designing Classrooms for Self-Regulation
Complex Tasks
Control
Self-Evaluation
Collaboration
Bringing It All Together: Theories of Learning
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Failure to Self-Regulate: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 12 Motivation in Learning and Teaching
Teachers’ Casebook—Motivating Students When Resources Are Thin: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
What Is Motivation?
Meeting Some Students
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: Lessons for Teachers
What You Already Know About Motivation
Needs and Self-Determination
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Determination: Need for Competence, Autonomy, and Relatedness
Self-Determination in the Classroom
Information and Control
The Need for Relatedness
Needs: Lessons for Teachers
GUIDELINES: Supporting Self-Determination and Autonomy
Goals and Goal Orientations
Types of Goals and Goal Orientations
Four Achievement Goal Orientations in School
Wait—Are Performance Goals Always Bad?
Social and Work-Avoidance Goals
Goals in Social Context
Feedback, Goal Framing, and Goal Acceptance
Goals: Lessons for Teachers
Expectancy-Value-Cost Explanations
Costs
Tasks Value
Lessons for Teachers
Attributions and Beliefs About Knowledge, Ability, and Self-Worth
Attributions in the Classroom
Teacher Attributions Trigger Student Attributions
Beliefs About Knowing: Epistemological Beliefs
Mindsets and Beliefs About Ability
Mindsets: Lessons for Teachers
Beliefs About Self-Worth
Learned Helplessness
Self-Worth
Self-Worth: Lessons for Teachers
GUIDELINES: Encouraging Self-Worth
How Do You Feel About Learning? Interests, Curiosity, Emotions, and Anxiety
Tapping Interests
Two Kinds of Interests
Catching and Holding Interests
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Does Making Learning Fun Make for Good Learning?
Curiosity: Novelty and Complexity
GUIDELINES: Building on Students’ Interests and Curiosity
Flow
Emotions and Anxiety
Neuroscience and Emotion
Achievement Emotions
Arousal and Anxiety
Anxiety in the Classroom
How Does Anxiety Interfere with Achievement?
Reaching Every Student: Coping with Anxiety
GUIDELINES: Coping with Anxiety
Curiosity, Interests, and Emotions: Lessons for Teachers
Motivation to Learn in School: On Target
Tasks for Learning
Beyond Task Value to Genuine Appreciation
Authentic Tasks
Supporting Autonomy and Recognizing Accomplishment
Supporting Choices
Recognizing Accomplishment
Grouping, Evaluation, and Time
Grouping and Goal Structures
Evaluation
Time
Putting It All Together
Diversity in Motivation
Lessons for Teachers: Strategies to Encourage Motivation
Can I Do It? Building Confidence and Positive Expectations
Do I Want To Do It? Seeing the Value of Learning
What Do I Need to Do to Succeed? Staying Focused on the Task
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Motivation to Learn
Do I Belong in This Classroom?
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Motivating Students When Resources are Thin: What Would They Do?
PART III TEACHING AND ASSESSING
CHAPTER 13 Managing Learning Environments
Teachers’ Casebook—Bullies and Victims: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
The What and Why of Classroom Management
The Basic Task: Gain Their Cooperation
The Goals of Classroom Management
Access to Learning
More Time for Learning
Management Means Relationships
Management for Self-Management
Creating a Positive Learning Environment
Some Research Results
Routines and Rules Required
Routines and Procedures
Rules
GUIDELINES: Establishing Class Routines
Rules for Elementary School
Rules for Secondary School
Consequences
Who Sets the Rules and Consequences?
Planning Spaces for Learning
Personal Territories and Seating Arrangements
Interest Areas
Getting Started: The First Weeks of Class
Effective Managers for Elementary Students
GUIDELINES: Designing Learning Spaces
Effective Managers for Secondary Students
Maintaining a Good Environment for Learning
Encouraging Engagement
Prevention Is the Best Medicine
GUIDELINES: Keeping Students Engaged
Withitness
Overlapping and Group Focus
Movement Management
Student Social Skills as Prevention
Caring Relationships: Connections with School
Teacher Connections
School Connections
Creating Communities of Care for Adolescents
Dealing with Discipline Problems
Stopping Problems Quickly
GUIDELINES: Creating Caring Relationships
If You Impose Penalties
Teacher-Imposed Penalties versus Student Responsibility
GUIDELINES: Imposing Penalties
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Is Zero Tolerance a Good Idea?
What About Zero Tolerance?
Bullying and Cyberbullying
Victims
Why Do Students Bully?
What Can Teachers Do? Bullying and Teasing
Cyberbullying
Special Problems with High School Students
GUIDELINES: Handling Potentially Explosive Situations
The Need for Communication
Message Sent—Message Received
Empathetic Listening
When Listening Is Not Enough: I-Messages, Assertive Discipline, and Problem Solving
“I” Messages
Assertive Discipline
Confrontations and Negotiations
Reaching Every Student: Peer Mediation and Restorative Justice
Peer Mediation
Restorative Justice
Research on Management Approaches
Diversity: Culturally Responsive Management
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Classroom Management
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Bullies and Victims: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 14 Teaching Every Student
Teachers’ Casebook—Reaching and Teaching Every Student: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Research on Teaching
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
Clarity and Organization
Enthusiasm and Warmth
Knowledge for Teaching
Research on Teaching Strategies
The First Step: Planning
Research on Planning
Learning Targets
An Example of State-Level Goals: The Common Core
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Are the Common Core Standards a Valuable Guide for Teaching?
Classrooms Targets for Learning
Flexible and Creative Plans—Using Taxonomies
The Cognitive Domain
The Affective Domain
The Psychomotor Domain
Another Take on Learning Targets
Planning from a Constructivist Perspective
GUIDELINES: Using Learning Targets
Teaching Approaches
Direct Instruction
Rosenshine’s Six Teaching Functions
Why Does Direct Instruction Work?
Evaluating Direct Instruction
Seatwork and Homework
Seatwork
GUIDELINES: Effective Direct Instruction
Homework
The Case Against Homework
Homework for Older Students
Beware of Either/Or
Questioning, Discussion, Dialogue, and Feedback
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Homework
Kinds of Questions
Asking Deep Questions
Fitting The Questions to the Students
Responding to Student Answers
Group Discussion
Fitting Teaching to Your Goals
Putting It All Together: Understanding by Design
GUIDELINES: Productive Group Discussions
Differentiated Instruction and Adaptive Teaching
Within-Class and Flexible Grouping
The Problems with Ability Grouping
Flexible Grouping
GUIDELINES: Using Flexible Grouping
Adaptive Teaching
Reaching Every Student: Differentiated Instruction in Inclusive Classrooms
Technology and Differentiation
Teacher Expectations
Two Kinds of Expectation Effects
Sources of Expectations
Do Teachers’ Expectations Really Affect Students’ Achievement?
Lessons for Teachers: Communicating Appropriate Expectations
GUIDELINES: Avoiding the Negative Effects of Teacher Expectations
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Reaching and Teaching Every Student: What Would They Do?
CHAPTER 15 Classroom Assessment, Grading, and Standardized Testing
Teachers’ Casebook—Giving Meaningful Grades: What Would You Do?
Overview and Objectives
Basics of Assessment
Measurement and Assessment
Formative, Interim, and Summative Assessment
Assessing the Assessments: Reliability and Validity
Reliability of Test Scores
Validity
Absence of Bias
Classroom Assessment: Testing
Interpreting Any Test Score
Norm-Referenced Test Interpretations
Criterion-Referenced Test Interpretations
Using the Tests from Textbooks
Selected-Response Testing
Using Multiple-Choice Tests
Writing Multiple-Choice Questions
Constructed Responses: Essay Testing
Constructing Essay Tests
Evaluating Essays
GUIDELINES: Writing Multiple-Choice Items
Assessing Traditional Testing
Formative and Authentic Classroom Assessments
Informal Assessments
Exit Tickets
Journals
Involving Students in Assessments
Authentic Assessments: Portfolios and Exhibitions
Portfolios
Exhibitions
Evaluating Portfolios and Performances
Scoring Rubrics
GUIDELINES: Creating Portfolios
GUIDELINES: Developing a Rubric
Reliability, Validity, Generalizability
Diversity and Bias in Performance Assessment
Assessing Complex Thinking
Classroom Assessment: Lessons for Teachers
Grading
Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced Grading
Effects of Grading on Students
The Value of Failing?
Retention in Grade
Grades and Motivation
POINT/COUNTERPOINT: Should Children Be Held Back?
Beyond Grading: Communicating with Families
Standardized Testing
Types of Scores
Measurements of Central Tendency and Standard Deviation
GUIDELINES: Using Any Grading System
The Normal Distribution
Percentile Rank Scores
Grade-Equivalent Scores
Standard Scores
Interpreting Standardized Test Reports
Discussing Test Results with Families
Accountability and High-Stakes Testing
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS: Conferences and Explaining Test Results
Making Decisions
What Do Teachers Think?
Documented Problems with High-Stakes Testing
New Directions: PARCC and SBAC
In Sum: Using High-Stakes Testing Well
GUIDELINES: Preparing Yourself and Your Students for Testing
Reaching Every Student: Helping Students with Disabilities Prepare for High-Stakes Tests
Teacher Accountability and Evaluation
Value-Added Measures
Quality Standardized Assessment: Lessons for Teachers
Summary and Key Terms
Practice Using What You Have Learned
Connect and Extend to Licensure
Teachers’ Casebook—Giving Meaningful Grades: What Would They Do?
Licensure Appendix
Glossary
References
Name Index
Subject Index

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