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Contemporary Communication Systems, ISBN-13: 978-0073380360

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Contemporary Communication Systems by M. Farooque Mesiya, ISBN-13: 978-0073380360
[PDF eBook eTextbook]

960 pages
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education; 1 edition (January 10, 2012)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0073380369
ISBN-13: 978-0073380360

Contemporary Communication Systems provides a comprehensive introduction to analog and digital communication systems. In addition to a logical and easy-to-understand presentation of fundamental principles, the book engages students in the issues relevant to system and product implementation by integrating a discussion of theoretical concepts with extensive hands-on visual and simulation resources that reinforce learning. A unique feature of the book is sufficient coverage of important topics in digital communications including compression, multiplexing and synchronization techniques. The book also explores the impact of semiconductor revolution (Moore’s law) and software technologies in the realization of modern digital communication systems.

Table of contents:

Cover Page……Page 1
Half Title Page……Page 2
Copyright Page……Page 3
Dedication……Page 4
Brief Contents……Page 5
Table of Contents……Page 6
Preface……Page 16
Notational Conventions……Page 19
CHAPTER 1 Introduction……Page 20
1.2 Communication Channels……Page 21
1.2.1 Coaxial Cable……Page 23
1.2.2 Optical Fibers……Page 24
1.2.3 Radio Channels……Page 27
1.3.1 Digital Communication Systems……Page 29
1.3.2 Why Digital Transmission?……Page 31
1.4 History of Communications……Page 33
1.4.1 Wireless Communications……Page 37
1.5 Key Themes and Drivers……Page 38
Further Readings……Page 40
CHAPTER 2 Review of Signals and Linear Systems……Page 43
2.1 Basic Signal Concepts……Page 44
2.1.1 Some Useful Basic Signals……Page 46
2.1.2 Energy and Power Signals……Page 52
2.1.4 Some Basic Operations on Signals……Page 54
2.2 Basic System Concepts……Page 57
2.2.1 Classification of Systems……Page 58
2.2.2 Characterization of LTI Systems……Page 61
2.3 Frequency Domain Representation……Page 65
2.4 Fourier Series……Page 66
2.4.1 Trigonometric Fourier Series……Page 67
2.4.2 Parseval’s Theorem……Page 71
2.4.3 Convergence of Fourier Series……Page 73
2.5 Fourier Transform……Page 74
2.5.1 Fourier Transforms of Some Common Signals……Page 75
2.5.2 Properties of Fourier Transform……Page 77
2.5.3 Fourier Transforms of Periodic Signals……Page 84
2.6 Time-Bandwidth Product……Page 87
2.7 Transmission of Signals Through LTI Systems……Page 89
2.7.1 Distortionless Transmission……Page 92
2.8.1 Ideal Filters……Page 93
2.8.2 Realizable Approximations to Ideal Filters……Page 97
2.8.3 Analog Filter Design Using MATLAB……Page 99
2.9 Power Spectral Density……Page 103
2.9.1 Time-Average Autocorrelation Function……Page 105
2.9.2 Relationship Between Input and Output Power Spectral Densities……Page 106
2.10.1 Twisted Wire Pairs……Page 107
2.11 Fourier Transforms for Discrete-Time Signals……Page 111
Final Remarks……Page 115
Problems……Page 116
MATLAB Problems……Page 119
CHAPTER 3 Simulation of Communication Systems Using MATLAB/Simulink……Page 123
3.1 Getting Started in Simulink……Page 124
3.1.1 Solvers……Page 130
3.2 Modeling in Simulink……Page 131
3.2.1 Subsystems……Page 134
3.3.1 Deterministic Signals……Page 138
3.3.2 Random Signals……Page 140
3.3.3 Modeling of AWGN Channel……Page 144
3.4.1 Time-Domain Modeling……Page 147
3.4.2 Transform-Domain Description……Page 150
3.5 Displaying Signals in Frequency Domain……Page 153
3.6 Using Simulink with MATLAB……Page 155
3.6.1 Running Simulations from MATLAB……Page 156
Final Remarks……Page 158
Further Readings……Page 159
CHAPTER 4 Amplitude Modulation……Page 160
4.1 Low-Pass and Bandpass Signals……Page 162
4.2.1 Spectrum of the DSB-SC AM Signal……Page 163
4.2.2 Demodulation of DSB-SC AM Signals……Page 166
Experiment 4.1 DSB-SC AM Modulation and Demodulation……Page 168
4.3 Conventional Amplitude Modulation……Page 171
4.3.1 Spectrum of the Conventional AM Signal……Page 173
4.3.2 Demodulation of Conventional AM Signal……Page 179
Experiment 4.2 Conventional AM Modulation and Demodulation……Page 183
4.4 Alternative Representations for BP Signals and Systems……Page 185
4.4.1 Frequency Spectrum of Complex Envelope and Analytic Representations……Page 187
4.4.2 Complex Envelope Representation of BP Systems……Page 189
4.5 Single-Sideband AM……Page 192
4.5.1 Demodulation of SSB-AM Signals……Page 196
Experiment 4.3 SSB-AM Modulation and Demodulation……Page 198
4.6 Vestigial-Sideband AM……Page 200
4.7 Quadrature Multiplexing……Page 204
4.8.1 Frequency Division Multiplexing……Page 205
4.9.1 Down-Conversion Mixer……Page 209
4.9.2 Image-Reject Mixers……Page 211
4.10 Communication Receivers……Page 212
4.10.1 Superheterodyne Receivers……Page 213
4.10.2 Direct-Conversion Receivers……Page 215
4.10.3 Low-IF Receiver Architectures……Page 216
Final Remarks……Page 217
Problems……Page 218
MATLAB Problems……Page 220
APPENDIX 4A: Hilbert Transform……Page 222
5.1 FM and PM Signals……Page 225
5.1.1 FM and PM Signals with Sinusoidal Modulating Signal……Page 230
5.1.2 Power in Angle-Modulated Signal……Page 233
5.2 Spectrum of Angle-Modulated Signals……Page 234
5.2.1 Bandwidth of a Sinusoidally Modulated FM Signal……Page 235
5.2.2 Bandwidth of an FM Signal Modulated by Arbitrary Message Signal……Page 238
5.3 Narrowband FM……Page 240
5.4 Demodulation of Angle-Modulated Signals……Page 242
5.4.1 Bandpass Limiter……Page 243
5.4.2 Frequency Discriminator……Page 244
Experiment 5.1 Simulink Model of an FM System with Frequency Discriminator……Page 245
Experiment 5.2 FM Demodulation with Balanced Slope Detector……Page 249
5.4.3 Phase-shift Discriminator: Quadrature Detector……Page 250
5.5 Phase-Locked Loop……Page 252
5.5.1 Analog Phase-Locked Loop……Page 253
5.5.2 APLL Linear Model……Page 257
5.5.3 First-Order PLL……Page 258
Experiment 5.3 First-Order PLL……Page 261
5.5.4 Second-Order PLL……Page 262
Experiment 5.4 Second-Order PLL……Page 271
5.5.5 Acquisition Process: APLL in the Unlocked State……Page 272
5.6 PLL as FM Demodulator……Page 274
Experiment 5.5 PLL as FM Demodulator……Page 275
5.7.1 FM Stereo……Page 277
5.8.1 Black-and-White Image……Page 279
5.8.2 Black-and-White Television……Page 281
5.8.3 Color Television……Page 286
5.8.4 Multichannel Television Sound……Page 291
Final Remarks……Page 292
Problems……Page 293
MATLAB Problems……Page 295
CHAPTER 6 Probability and Random Processes……Page 297
6.1.1 Relative Frequency……Page 298
6.1.2 Probability Axioms……Page 299
6.1.3 Union Bound……Page 300
6.1.4 Conditional Probability……Page 301
6.2 Random Variables……Page 305
6.2.1 Discrete Random Variables……Page 306
6.2.2 Some Common Discrete Random Variables……Page 307
6.3 Continuous Random Variables……Page 310
6.3.1 Some Common Continuous Random Variables……Page 312
6.3.2 PDFs for Discrete and Mixed Random Variables……Page 317
6.4.1 Case I: g ( x ) Monotonically Increasing or Decreasing……Page 318
6.4.2 Case II: Arbitrary g ( x )……Page 320
6.5 Statistics of Random Variables……Page 321
6.5.1 Moments and Characteristic Functions……Page 323
6.6 Pairs of Random Variables……Page 326
6.6.1 Marginal Distributions……Page 328
6.6.2 Function of Two Random Variables: Expected Values……Page 329
6.7 Conditional Distributions……Page 332
6.7.2 Independent Random Variables……Page 335
6.8 Jointly Gaussian Random Variables……Page 337
6.8.1 Two Functions of Two Random Variables……Page 340
6.8.2 Central Limit Theorem……Page 342
6.9 Random Processes: Introduction……Page 343
6.9.1 Characterization of a Random Process……Page 346
6.9.2 Stationary Random Processes……Page 349
6.9.4 Ergodic Random Processes……Page 350
6.9.5 Properties of the Autocorrelation Function……Page 351
6.10 Power Spectrum of a Random Process……Page 352
6.10.1 Wiener-Khinchin Theorem……Page 353
6.10.2 Transmission of Random Signals Through Linear Time-Invariant Systems……Page 355
6.11.1 Gaussian Random Process……Page 357
6.11.2 White Gaussian Noise……Page 358
6.11.3 Filtered White Gaussian Noise……Page 359
6.12 Narrowband Noise……Page 361
6.12.1 Narrowband White Gaussian Noise……Page 363
6.12.2 Envelope of Sine Wave in Narrowband Noise……Page 367
6.13.1 Thermal Noise……Page 369
6.13.2 Available Power……Page 371
6.13.3 Shot Noise……Page 372
6.14 Characterization of System Noise……Page 373
6.14.1 Noise Factor and Noise Figure……Page 374
6.14.2 Effective Input Noise Temperature of a Subsystem……Page 375
6.14.3 Noise Figure of a Cascade of Subsystems……Page 376
6.14.4 Noise Factor of a Lossy Two-Port Network……Page 378
6.15 MATLAB Simulation of Random Processes……Page 379
6.15.1 Generating Arbitrary PDF Random Variables……Page 380
6.15.3 Samples of White Gaussian Noise……Page 381
Problems……Page 383
MATLAB Problems……Page 386
CHAPTER 7 Noise Performance of Analog Communication Systems……Page 390
7.1 Noise Performance of Baseband Systems……Page 391
7.2 Effect of Noise on the Performance of AM Systems……Page 392
7.2.1 Noise Performance of DSB-SC……Page 393
Experiment 7.1 Noise Performance of a DSB-SC AM System……Page 395
7.2.2 Noise Performance of SSB-AM……Page 397
Experiment 7.2 Noise Performance of an SSB-AM System……Page 400
7.2.3 Noise Performance of Conventional AM……Page 402
Experiment 7.3 Noise Performance of Conventional AM System……Page 407
7.3 Noise Performance of Angle-Modulation Systems……Page 409
7.3.1 High-CNR Operation……Page 410
7.3.2 FM System Operation: Low-CNR Case……Page 417
Experiment 7.4 Noise Performance of an FM System……Page 422
7.4 Preemphasis and Deemphasis……Page 424
7.5 Comparison of Analog Modulation Systems……Page 426
7.6 Link Design……Page 428
7.6.1 Analog Repeater……Page 429
7.6.2 Performance of Analog Communication System Using Cascade of Repeaters……Page 430
Final Remarks……Page 434
Problems……Page 435
MATLAB Problems……Page 437
CHAPTER 8 Conversion of Analog Signals to Digital Format……Page 441
8.1 Sampling of Low-Pass Signals……Page 442
8.1.1 Nyquist-Shannon Sampling Theorem’……Page 444
8.1.2 DFT of the Sampled Sequence……Page 445
8.1.3 Reconstruction of the Analog Signal……Page 446
8.1.4 Practical Sampling Techniques……Page 448
8.2 Aliasing……Page 451
Experiment 8.1 Natural Sampling of a LP Random Signal……Page 455
8.3 Digitization of Analog Signals……Page 457
8.3.1 Quantization……Page 458
8.3.2 Coding of Quantized Samples……Page 459
Experiment 8.2 Study of m-Bit Quantization Errors……Page 461
8.3.4 Quantization Noise……Page 463
8.4 Pulse Code Modulation……Page 466
8.4.1 Nonuniform Quantization……Page 467
8.5 Differential Pulse Code Modulation……Page 473
8.6 Oversampling in Analog-to-Digital Conversion……Page 476
8.7 Delta Modulation……Page 479
8.7.1 Slope Overload and Granular Noise……Page 481
8.7.2 Adaptive Delta Modulation……Page 482
8.7.3 Continuously Variable Slope Delta Modulation……Page 483
8.7.4 Quantization Noise……Page 484
Experiment 8.3 Delta Modulation……Page 487
8.8 Sigma-Delta Modulation……Page 488
8.8.1 First-Order Sigma-Delta Modulation……Page 489
8.8.2 Noise Performance……Page 490
Experiment 8.4 Sigma-Delta Modulation……Page 493
8.9 Sampling Theorem for Bandpass Signals……Page 494
Experiment 8.5 Natural Sampling of a BP Random Signal……Page 500
8.9.1 BP Sampling in Digital Receivers……Page 502
Further Readings……Page 503
Problems……Page 504
MATLAB Problems……Page 506
CHAPTER 9 Digital Baseband Modulation……Page 508
9.1 Pulse Amplitude Modulation……Page 509
9.2 Binary Line-Coding Techniques……Page 511
9.3.1 Power Spectral Density of Random Pulse Trains……Page 513
9.3.2 Spectra of Binary Line Codes……Page 517
Experiment 9.1 Waveforms and Spectra of Several Line-Coding Schemes……Page 523
9.4 Bandwidth of Digital Baseband Signals……Page 525
9.5 Spectral and Power Out-of-Band Plots……Page 526
9.6.1 Binary Block Codes……Page 528
9.6.2 Multilevel Block Codes……Page 530
9.7 Scrambling……Page 531
9.7.1 Frame-Synchronous Scrambler……Page 533
9.7.2 SONET Scrambler……Page 534
9.7.3 Self-Synchronous Scrambler……Page 535
9.7.4 ATM Scrambler……Page 537
9.8.1 Sinc Pulse……Page 538
9.8.2 Raised Cosine Pulses……Page 540
Experiment 9.2 Effect of Channel on Baseband Digital Signals……Page 543
9.9 Estimation of Allowable Bit Rate……Page 545
Problems……Page 547
MATLAB Problems……Page 549
CHAPTER 10 Detection of Baseband Signals in Noise……Page 551
10.1 Binary Signal Detection in AWGN……Page 552
10.1.1 Probability of Bit Error……Page 553
10.2 The Matched Filter……Page 557
10.2.2 Performance of Binary Signaling Systems……Page 561
Experiment 10.1 Binary Antipodal System with Correlation Detector……Page 568
Experiment 10.2 Binary Antipodal Signaling System with Matched-Filter Detection……Page 569
10.3 Vector Space Concepts……Page 571
10.3.1 Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces……Page 572
10.3.2 Inner-Product Vector Spaces……Page 573
10.3.3 Gram-Schmidt Orthonormalization Procedure……Page 575
10.4.1 Vector Space Representation of Waveforms……Page 579
10.4.2 Examples of Signal Constellations……Page 581
10.4.3 Vector Space Representation of WGN……Page 585
10.5.1 The Maximum a Posteriori Detector……Page 587
10.5.2 The Maximum Likelihood Detector……Page 588
10.5.3 MAP and ML Detector Implementations……Page 589
10.5.4 Decision Regions……Page 591
10.6.1 Two-Signal Error Probability……Page 592
10.6.2 M -Signal Error Probability……Page 593
10.6.3 Relationship Between Bit and Symbol Error Rates……Page 598
10.7 Error Performance of M -ary PAM Signals……Page 599
Experiment 10.3 Noise Performance of 4-PAM Signaling System……Page 602
Final Remarks……Page 603
Problems……Page 604
MATLAB Problems……Page 607
CHAPTER 11 Digital Information Transmission Using Carrier Modulation……Page 611
11.1 Basic Concepts……Page 612
11.1.1 Representations of Digitally Modulated Carrier Signals……Page 614
11.2 Binary Amplitude-Shift Keying……Page 615
11.2.1 Coherent Demodulation of BASK Signals……Page 616
Experiment 11.1 BASK Simulation and Performance Comparison……Page 621
11.3 Binary Phase-Shift Keying……Page 623
11.3.1 Coherent Demodulation of BPSK Signals……Page 624
Experiment 11.2 BPSK Simulation and Performance Comparison……Page 627
11.4 Binary Frequency-Shift Keying……Page 630
11.4.1 Orthogonality of BFSK Signals……Page 631
11.4.2 Coherent Demodulation of BFSK Signals……Page 633
Experiment 11.3 BFSK Simulation and Performance Comparison……Page 635
11.5 Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying……Page 637
11.6 Noncoherent Demodulation of Binary Digital Carrier Signals……Page 640
11.6.1 Noncoherent Binary ASK……Page 641
11.6.2 Noncoherent Binary FSK……Page 644
11.7 Quadrature Modulation Schemes……Page 648
11.7.2 QPSK……Page 650
Experiment 11.4 QPSK Simulation and Performance Comparison……Page 655
11.7.3 Offset QPSK……Page 658
Experiment 11.5 OQPSK Simulation and Performance Comparison……Page 661
11.7.4 M -ary Phase-Shift Keying……Page 662
11.8 Minimum Shift Keying……Page 665
Experiment 11.6 MSK Simulation and Performance Comparison……Page 669
11.9 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation……Page 671
Experiment 11.7 16-QAM System Simulation and Performance Comparison……Page 677
11.10 Spectra of Quadrature Modulated Signals……Page 680
11.10.1 Other Bandwidth Definitions……Page 687
11.11 Comparison of Carrier Modulation Schemes……Page 691
Further Readings……Page 692
Problems……Page 693
MATLAB Problems……Page 695
CHAPTER 12 Digital Signal Transmission Through Time Dispersive Channels……Page 698
12.1 Transmission of PAM Signals Through Bandlimited Channels……Page 699
12.1.1 Eye Diagrams……Page 701
12.2 Nyquist’s Criterion for Zero ISI……Page 705
12.2.1 RC Pulse Signaling……Page 708
12.3 Transmit and Receive Filters for Bandlimited AWGN Channels……Page 711
12.3.1 Probability of Error Performance……Page 714
12.4 Partial Response (Duobinary) Signaling……Page 715
12.4.1 Detection of Duobinary Signals……Page 718
12.4.2 Probability of Error Performance……Page 721
12.5 Linear Equalizers……Page 722
12.5.1 Zero-Forcing Equalizer……Page 725
12.5.2 Minimum Mean-Square Error Equalizer……Page 730
12.6 Adaptive Equalization……Page 738
12.6.1 Least Mean Square Error Algorithm……Page 739
12.7 Decision Feedback Equalizers……Page 741
12.7.1 Coefficient Optimization……Page 745
12.7.2 Channel Estimation……Page 746
12.8 Performance of Linear and Decision Feedback Equalizers……Page 748
Problems……Page 753
MATLAB Problems……Page 755
CHAPTER 13 Digital Multiplexing and Synchronization……Page 760
13.1 Digital Multiplexing……Page 761
13.1.1 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchies……Page 763
13.1.3 M12 Multiplexer: DS2 Frame……Page 764
13.1.4 DS2 OH Bits……Page 765
13.2 SONET……Page 768
13.2.1 Multiplexing of SONET Signals……Page 770
13.2.2 Synchronization of SONET Signals……Page 771
13.3.1 Raised-Power Loops……Page 773
13.3.2 Costas Loop……Page 775
13.3.3 Effect of Noise on the Carrier Phase Estimation……Page 776
13.3.4 Effect of Noise on the Performance of Carrier Synchronizers……Page 779
13.4 Symbol Synchronization……Page 784
13.4.1 Clock Recovery from NRZ Data……Page 785
13.4.2 PLL for Clock Recovery……Page 787
Experiment 13.1 SONET OC-48 Clock and Data Recovery Using PLL……Page 793
13.5 Frame Synchronization……Page 796
13.5.1 Performance of a Frame Synchronizer……Page 797
13.5.2 Choice of Frame Alignment Word……Page 800
Final Remarks……Page 802
Problems……Page 803
MATLAB Problems……Page 805
CHAPTER 14 Information Theory and Compression Techniques……Page 806
14.1 Basic Concepts of Information Theory……Page 807
14.1.1 Joint and Conditional Entropy……Page 809
14.1.2 Differential Entropy……Page 813
14.1.3 Mutual Information……Page 814
14.2.1 Discrete Memoryless Sources……Page 817
14.2.2 Shannon’s Source Coding Theorem……Page 818
14.3.1 Modeling of Communication Channels……Page 820
14.3.2 Capacity of a Communication Channel……Page 823
14.3.3 Shannon’s Channel Capacity Theorem……Page 828
14.3.4 Another Channel Coding Theorem……Page 830
14.4.1 Shannon’s Capacity Theorem for AWGN Channels……Page 831
14.4.2 Capacity of Bandlimited AWGN Channels……Page 833
14.4.3 Implications of Capacity Theorem for Bandlimited AWGN Channels……Page 834
14.4.4 Power-Bandwidth Trade-Offs……Page 836
14.5.1 Lossless Compression Techniques……Page 838
14.5.2 Huffman Coding……Page 839
14.5.3 Run-Length Encoding……Page 843
14.5.4 Lempel-Ziv Coding……Page 844
14.6 Image Compression: JPEG……Page 850
14.6.1 Discrete Cosine Transform……Page 853
14.6.2 JPEG Compression Standard……Page 854
14.6.3 Subsampling of Chrominance Components……Page 859
14.7 Digital Video Compression: MPEG……Page 860
14.7.1 MPEG……Page 862
Final Remarks……Page 865
Problems……Page 866
MATLAB Problems……Page 868
APPENDIX A: Capacity of AWGN Channel: Alternative Proof……Page 870
CHAPTER 15 Channel Coding Techniques……Page 873
15.1 Block Codes……Page 875
15.1.1 Linear Block Codes……Page 876
15.1.2 Systematic Linear Block Codes……Page 879
15.1.3 Error and Syndrome Vectors……Page 881
15.2 Hard-Decision Decoding of Block Codes……Page 884
15.2.2 Error-Detecting and Error-Correcting Capabilities……Page 886
15.3 Cyclic Codes……Page 891
15.3.1 Encoding of Systematic Cyclic Codes……Page 892
15.3.2 Decoding of Cyclic Codes……Page 893
15.3.3 Important Families of Block Codes……Page 894
15.3.4 Cyclic Redundancy Check Codes……Page 896
15.4 Error Correction Performance of Hard-Decision Decoded Block Codes……Page 897
15.5 Soft-Decision Decoding of Block Codes……Page 900
15.5.1 Soft-Decision Decoding Error Performance……Page 901
15.5.2 Coding Gain……Page 903
15.6 Convolutional Codes……Page 907
15.6.1 Representation of Convolutional Codes……Page 908
15.6.2 Decoding of Convolutional Codes……Page 911
15.6.3 The Viterbi Algorithm……Page 914
15.7 Error Performance of Convolutional Codes……Page 919
15.7.1 Transfer Function of a Convolutional Code……Page 920
15.7.2 Probability of Error for Convolutional Codes……Page 921
15.7.3 Coding Gain……Page 924
15.8.1 Turbo Decoding……Page 926
15.8.2 Performance of Turbo Codes……Page 930
15.9 Trellis-Coded Modulation……Page 932
15.9.1 Decoding of TCM Codes……Page 936
Final Remarks……Page 939
Problems……Page 940
MATLAB Problems……Page 942
APPENDIX A Mathematical Tables……Page 946
APPENDIX B Abbreviations……Page 951
APPENDIX C List of Symbols……Page 953
Index……Page 955

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