Calculate with Confidence 8th Edition by Deborah C. Morris, ISBN-13: 978-0323696951


Calculate with Confidence 8th Edition by Deborah C. Morris, ISBN-13: 978-0323696951

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  • Publisher: ‎ Elsevier; 8th edition (October 26, 2021)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 728 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 0323696953
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0323696951

Learn how to make accurate drug calculations and administer medications safely!

Calculate with Confidence, 8th Edition makes it easy to understand the three major methods of dosage calculation ― ratio and proportion, formula method, and dimensional analysis. Clear, step-by-step instructions guide you through accurate calculation and safe administration of drug dosages. Thousands of practice problems ensure that you gain proficiency, QSEN principles prioritize client safety, and an emphasis on clinical reasoning helps you prevent medication errors. New Next Generation NCLEX® (NGN) case studies help in improving clinical judgment skills. With this popular text from educator Deborah C. Morris, you will learn to calculate drug dosages and administer medications with confidence.

  • Thousands of practice problems ensure that you gain proficiency with drug calculations.
  • Safety Alert boxes help you prevent medication errors and avoid errors in dosage calculation.
  • Tips for Clinical Practice boxes call out information critical to math calculation and patient safety, and summarize best practices in client care (a Clinical Judgment feature for the Next Generation NCLEX®, or NGN).
    • Rule boxes present instructions essential to math calculations and provide the information needed to accurately solve drug calculation problems.
      • Clinical Reasoning Scenarios discuss the safe administration of medications (also a Clinical Judgment feature for the NGN) and help you apply your knowledge to patient care.
        • Comprehensive Post-Test assesses your retention of the “big picture” concepts, with answers located in the back of the book.
          • Review of basic math, pre-tests, and post-tests allow you to evaluate your understanding of the material.
          • Medication Administration chapter covers medication safety, a discussion on client rights, the basic six rights of medication administration, and routes of medication administration.
          • Chapter review problems test your comprehension of all major topics, with the answers at the end of the chapter.
          • Points to Remember list bulleted key points from the chapter.
            • NEW! Five single-episode Next Generation NCLEX® (NGN) case studies are added to the book.
            • NEW! QSEN content is now included In Unit One, Math Review.
            • NEW! Updated medication labels are included.
            • NEW! Discussion of herbal meds is included in the Medication Administration chapter.
            • NEW! Latest research and information is included in the Insulin, Critical Care Calculations, and Pediatric and Adult Dosage Calculation Based on Weight chapters.
            • NEW! Updated information on the administration of fluids is added.
            • NEW! Updated information and examples of complex I&O problems are added to the Intake and Output section of the text, and it also includes more examples of complex I&O problems.
            • NEW! Updated Medication Index includes the latest drug information and removes drugs that are off the market or are not widely used.

Table of Contents:

Cover image
Title page
Table of Contents
Preface to the Instructor
List of Illustrations
List of Tables
Unit One: Math Review
Pre-Test 2
Introduction to Math Review
Chapter 1: Fractions
Types of Fractions
Converting Fractions
Comparing Fractions
Chapter 2: Decimals
Reading and Writing Decimals
Chapter 3: Ratio and Proportion
Solving for x in Ratio and Proportion
Applying Ratio and Proportion to Dosage Calculation
Chapter 4: Percentages
Converting Percentages to Fractions, Decimals, and Ratios
Percentage Measures
Comparing Percents and Ratios
Determining the Percent of a Quantity
Determining What Percent One Number Is of Another
Calculating the Percent of Change
Unit Two: Systems of Measurement
Post-Test 65
Introduction to Systems of Measurement
Chapter 5: Metric System
Particulars of the Metric System
Rules of the Metric System
Units of Measure
Conversions Between Metric Units
Chapter 6: Apothecary and Household Systems and Additional Measures Used in Medication Administration
Apothecary System
Household System
Other Medication Measurements Used in Dosage Calculation
Chapter 7: Converting Within and Between Systems
Equivalents Among Metric and Household Systems
Methods of Converting
Converting Within the Same System
Converting Between Systems
Calculating Intake and Output
Chapter 8: Additional Conversions Useful in the Health Care Setting
Converting Between Celsius and Fahrenheit
Formulas for Converting Between Fahrenheit and Celsius Scales
Metric Measures Relating to Length
Conversions Relating to Weight
Military Time
Calculating Completion Times
Unit Three: Methods of Administration and Calculation
Introduction to Methods of Administration and Calculation
Chapter 9: Medication Administration
Medication Errors
Overview of Medication Errors
Preventing Medication Errors
Critical Thinking and Medication Administration
Factors That Influence Medication Dosages and Action
Special Considerations for the Elderly
The Rights of Medication Administration
Medication Reconciliation
Client Education
Home Care Considerations
The Nurse’s Role in Medication Error Prevention
Routes of Medication Administration
Equipment Used for Medication Administration
Equipment for Administering Oral Medications to a Child
Chapter 10: Understanding and Interpreting Medication Orders
Verbal Orders
Transcription of Medication Orders
Writing a Medication Order
Components of a Medication Order
Interpreting a Medication Order
Chapter 11: Medication Administration Records and Drug Distribution Systems
Medication Orders
Medication Administration Record
Essential Components on a Medication Administration Record
Documentation of Medications
Use of Technology in Medication Administration
Medication Distribution Systems
Role of the Nurse When Using Technology
Scheduling Medication Times
Military Time
NGN Case Study
Chapter 12: Reading Medication Labels
Reading Medication Labels
The Medication Name and Tall Man Lettering
Chapter 13: Dosage Calculation Using the Ratio and Proportion Method
Use of Ratio and Proportion in Dosage Calculation
Chapter 14: Dosage Calculation Using the Formula Method
Formula for Calculating Dosages
Using the Formula Method
Chapter 15: Dosage Calculation Using the Dimensional Analysis Method
Understanding the Basics of Dimensional Analysis
Dosage Calculation Using Dimensional Analysis
Unit Four: Oral and Parenteral Dosage Forms and Insulin
Introduction to Oral and Parenteral Dosage Forms and Insulin
Chapter 16: Oral Medications
Forms of Solid Oral Medications
Calculating Oral Liquids
Measuring Oral Liquids
Chapter 17: Parenteral Medications
Parenteral Medication Packaging
Reading Parenteral Labels
Medications Labeled in Percentage Strengths
Solutions Expressed in Ratio Strength
Medications Measured in Units
Medications in Milliequivalents
Guidelines for Calculating and Rounding Parenteral Medications
Calculating Injectable Medications
Calculating Dosages for Medications in Units
Mixing Medications in the Same Syringe
Chapter 18: Reconstitution of Solutions
Basic Principles for Reconstitution
Reconstituting Medications With More Than One Direction for Mixing (Multiple Strength Reconstitution)
Reconstitution From Package Insert Directions and Medications With Different Reconstitution Directions Depending on Route of Administration
Medications With Instructions to “See Accompanying Literature” (Package Insert) for Reconstitution and Administration
Calculation of Dosages
Reconstitution of Noninjectable Solutions
Chapter 19: Insulin
Types of Insulin
Insulin Action Times
Appearance of Insulin
Insulin Administration
Insulin Orders
Current Recommendations Regarding Use of the Sliding Scale
Preparing a Single Dosage of Insulin in an Insulin Syringe
Measuring Two Types of Insulin in the Same Syringe
Unit Five: Intravenous, Heparin, and Critical Care Calculations and Pediatric and Adult Calculations Based on Weight
Introduction to Intravenous, Heparin, and Critical Care Calculations and Pediatric and Adult Calculations Based on Weight
Chapter 20: Intravenous Solutions and Equipment
IV Delivery Methods
IV Solutions
Administration of IV Fluids
Chapter 21: Intravenous Calculations
IV Flow Rate Calculation
Manually Regulated IVs
Calculating Flow Rates in Drops Per Minute Using a Formula and Dimensional Analysis
Dimensional Analysis
Calculation of IV Flow Rates Using a Shortcut Method
Calculating IV Flow Rates Using a Dial-Flow Controller
Calculating Intermittent IV Infusions Piggyback
Determining the Amount of Medication in a Specific Amount of Solution
Determining the Unknown for Time and Volume
Calculating a Problem with an Unknown Using the Formula Method and Dimensional Analysis
Recalculating an IV Flow Rate
Calculating Infusion and Completion Time
Calculating Infusion Time When Rate in mL/hr Is Not Indicated for Large Volumes of Fluid
Calculating Infusion Time for Small Volumes of Fluid
Monitoring the Infusion of IV Solutions
Charting IV Therapy
IV Push Medications
Administration of Medications by IV Push
Chapter 22: Heparin Calculations
Heparin Errors
Heparin Administration
Heparin Dosage Strengths
Other Anticoagulant Medications
Reading Heparin Labels
Calculation of Subcutaneous Dosages
Calculation of IV Heparin Solutions
Calculating Heparin Dosages Based on Weight
NGN Case Study
Chapter 23: Critical Care Calculations
Calculating Rate in mL/hr
Calculating Critical Care Dosages per Hour or per Minute
Medications Ordered in Milligrams per Minute
Calculating Dosages Based on mcg/kg/min
IV Flow Rates for Titrated Medications
Developing a Titration Table
NGN Case Study
Chapter 24: Pediatric and Adult Dosage Calculations Based on Weight
Older Adults (Geriatrics)
Pediatric Medication Dosages
Principles Relating to Basic Calculations
Calculation of Dosages Based on Body Weight
Converting Pounds to Kilograms
Converting Kilograms to Pounds
Converting Grams to Kilograms
Single-Dose Medications
Single-Dose Range Medications
Calculating Daily Doses
Adult Dosages Based on Body Weight
Calculating Dosages Using Body Surface Area
Use of a Nomogram to Determine BSA
Calculating BSA Using a Formula
Dosage Calculation Based on BSA
IV Therapy and Children
Calculating IV Medications Using a Volume Control Set
Calculation of Daily Fluid Maintenance
Pediatric Oral and Parenteral Medications
NGN Case Study
Comprehensive Post-Test
Appendix Table of Contents
Introduction to Appendix Table of Contents
Apothecary System
FDA and ISMP Lists of Look-Alike Drug Names With Recommended Tall Man Letters
TJC “Do Not Use” List of Abbreviations
ISMP List of Error-Prone Abbreviations, Symbols, and Dose Designations
ISMP List of High-Alert Medications in Acute Care Settings
ISMP List of High-Alert Medications in Community/Ambulatory Health Care
Drug Label Index
Commonly Used Medication Abbreviations

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