Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases 4th Edition by Lewis Vaughn, ISBN-13: 978-0190903268


Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases 4th Edition by Lewis Vaughn, ISBN-13: 978-0190903268

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  • Publisher: ‎ Oxford University Press; 4th edition (June 28, 2019)
  • Language: ‎ English
  • 832 pages
  • ISBN-10: ‎ 0190903260
  • ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0190903268

Bioethics: Principles, Issues, and Cases, Fourth Edition, explores the philosophical, medical, social, and legal aspects of key bioethical issues. Opening with a thorough introduction to ethics, bioethics, and moral reasoning, it then covers influential moral theories and the criteria for evaluating them. Integrating eighty-seven readings–ten of them new to this edition–substantive introductions to each issue, numerous classic bioethical cases, and abundant pedagogical tools, this text addresses the most provocative and controversial topics in bioethics.

Table of Contents:

*=New to this Edition



Chapter 1. Moral Reasoning in Bioethics

Ethics and Bioethics

Ethics and the Moral Life

In Depth: Morality and the Law

Moral Principles in Bioethics






Ethical Relativism

In Depth: Anthropology and Moral Diversity

Ethics and Religion

Moral Arguments

Argument Fundamentals

Patterns of Moral Arguments

Review: Valid and Invalid Argument Forms

In Depth: Fallacies in Moral Reasoning

Evaluating Premises

Assessing Whole Arguments

Key Terms


Argument Exercises

Further Reading


Chapter 2. Bioethics and Moral Theories

The Nature of Moral Theories

Influential Moral Theories


In Depth: Utilitarianism and the Golden Rule

Kantian Ethics

* Principlism

Natural Law Theory

Rawls’ Contract Theory

Virtue Ethics

In Depth: Can Virtue Be Taught?

The Ethics of Care

Feminist Ethics


Criteria for Judging Moral Theories

Review: Evaluating Moral Theories: Criteria of Adequacy

Applying the Criteria


Kant’s Theory

Key Terms


Further Reading



“Utilitarianism,” John Stuart Mill

“The Moral Law,” Immanuel Kant

* Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle

* “Caring,” Nel Noddings

* “The Need for More Than Justice,” Annette C. Baier

“Moral Saints,” Susan Wolf


Chapter 3. Paternalism and Patient Autonomy

Shades of Autonomy and Paternalism

Refusing Treatment

In Depth: The Hippocratic Oath

In Depth: Physician Autonomy

* Legal Brief: Advance Directives

Futile Treatment

Legal Brief: Refusing Treatment for Children on Religious Grounds

In Depth: CPR and DNR

In Depth: Moral Conflicts in Nursing

Classic Case File: Elizabeth Bouvia

Applying Major Theories

Key Terms


Cases for Evaluation

Further Reading



“Paternalism,” Gerald Dworkin

“The Refutation of Medical Paternalism,” Alan Goldman

“Why Doctors Should Intervene,” Terrence F. Ackerman

“Autonomy, Futility, and the Limits of Medicine,” Robert L. Schwartz

* “Four Models of the Physician-Patient Relationship,” Ezekiel J. Emanuel and Linda L. Emanuel

“Patient Autonomy and Physician Responsibility,” Commentaries by Patrick C. Beeman and Ryan C. VanWoerkom

* “Confronting Death: Who Chooses, Who Controls? “A Dialogue Between Dax Cowart And Robert Burt

Bouvia v. Superior Court, California Court of Appeal

“Fundamental Elements of the Patient-Physician Relationship,” AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs

“Advocacy or Subservience for the Sake of Patients?” Helga Kuhse

* “Paternalism Revisited,” Harriet Hall

Chapter 4. Truth-Telling and Confidentiality

Paternalism and Deception

In Depth: Do Patients Want the Truth? Do Physicians Tell It?

Confidential Truths

Legal Brief: Confidentiality and a Duty to Warn

In Depth: Truth-Telling and Cultural Diversity

Classic Case File: Carlos R.

Applying Major Theories

Key Terms


Cases for Evaluation

Further Reading



“Telling the Truth to Patients: A Clinical Ethics Exploration,” David C. Thomasma

“On Telling Patients the Truth,” Mack Lipkin

“Is It Ever OK to Lie to Patients?,” Shelly K. Schwartz

“Respect for Patients, Physicians, and the Truth,” Susan Cullen and Margaret Klein

“Why Privacy Is Important,” James Rachels

“Confidentiality in Medicine–A Decrepit Concept,” Mark Siegler

“Ethical Relativism in a Multicultural Society,” Ruth Macklin

Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California, Supreme Court of California

Chapter 5. Informed Consent

Autonomy and Consent

Conditions of Informed Consent

In Depth: Decision-Making Capacity

In Depth: Two Views of Informed Consent

Legal Brief: Important Informed Consent Cases

Applying Major Theories

Classic Case File: Jerry Canterbury

Key Terms


Cases for Evaluation

Further Reading



“The Concept of Informed Consent,” Ruth R. Faden and Tom L. Beauchamp

“Informed Consent–Must It Remain a Fairy Tale?” Jay Katz

“Transparency: Informed Consent in Primary Care,” Howard Brody

“Informed Consent: Some Challenges to the Universal Validity of the Western Model,” Robert J. Levine

Canterbury v. Spence, United States Court of Appeals

CHAPTER 6. Human Research

The Science of Clinical Trials

In Depth: The Tuskegee Tragedy

Beneficence, Science, and Placebos

Science and Informed Consent

In Depth: Women in Clinical Trials

Research on the Vulnerable

In Depth: Why Enter a Clinical Trial?

Applying Major Theories

Key Terms


Classic Case File: The UCLA Schizophrenia Study

Cases for Evaluation

Further Reading



The Nuremberg Code

Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Medical Association

“The Belmont Report,” The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research

“Final Report: Human Radiation Experiments,” Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments

“Of Mice but Not Men: Problems of the Randomized Clinical Trial,” Samuel Hellman and Deborah S. Hellman

“A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients,” Benjamin Freedman

“Racism and Research: The Case of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study,” Allan M. Brandt

* “Is It Time to Stop Using Race in Medical Research?” Angus Chen

“The Ethics of Clinical Research in the Third World,” Marcia Angell

“Ethical Issues in Clinical Trials in Developing Countries,” Baruch Brody


Chapter 7. Abortion

Starting Point: The Basics

Fact File: U.S. Abortions

In Depth: Abortion and Public Opinion 2017

The Legal Struggle

In Depth: Late-Term Abortion

Persons and Rights

In Depth: Does a Fetus Feel Pain?

Applying Major Theories

Key Terms


Classic Case File: Nancy Klein

Cases for Evaluation

Further Reading



“A Defense of Abortion,” Judith Jarvis Thomson

“Why Abortion Is Immoral,” Don Marquis

“An Almost Absolute Value in History,” John T. Noonan, Jr.

“On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion,” Mary Anne Warren

“Virtue Theory and Abortion,” Rosalind Hursthouse

“Abortion and the Concept of a Person,” Jane English

“Abortion,” Margaret Olivia Little

“Abortion Through a Feminist Ethics Lens,” Susan Sherwin

Roe v. Wade, United States Supreme Court

Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey, United States Supreme Court

Chapter 8. Reproductive Technology

In Vitro Fertilization

Fact File: Assisted Reproduction


In Depth: IVF and Children’s Future Children


In Depth: Cloning Time Line

Applying Major Theories

In Depth: Sherri Shepherd: How Surrogacy Can Go Wrong

Key Terms


Classic Case File: Baby M

Cases for Evaluation

Further Reading



“IVF: The Simple Case,” Peter Singer

“IVF and Women’s Interests: An Analysis of Feminist Concerns,” Mary Anne Warren

“‘Give Me Children or I Shall Die!’ New Reproductive Technologies and Harm to Children,” Cynthia B. Cohen

“Instruction on Respect for Human Life in Its Origin and on the Dignity of Procreation,” Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

“The Presumptive Primacy of Procreative Liberty,” John A. Robertson

“Surrogate Mothering: Exploitation or Empowerment?” Laura M. Purdy

“Is Women’s Labor a Commodity?” Elizabeth S. Anderson

“Egg Donation and Commodification,” Bonnie Steinbock

“The Wisdom of Repugnance,” Leon R. Kass

“Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con,” Dan W. Brock

CHAPTER 9. Genetic Choices

Genes and Genomes

Genetic Testing

In Depth: Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests

Gene Therapy

Fact File: Available Genetic Tests for Cancer Risk

Fact File: Recent Research in Gene Therapy

Stem Cells

Applying Major Theories

Classic Case File: The Kingsburys

Key Terms


Cases for Evaluation

Further Reading



“Implications of Prenatal Diagnosis for the Human Right to Life,” Leon R. Kass

“Genetics and Reproductive Risk: Can Having Children Be Immoral?” Laura M. Purdy

“The Morality of Screening for Disability,” Jeff McMahan

“Genetic Dilemmas and the Child’s Right to an Open Future,” Dena S. Davis

“Disowning Knowledge: Issues in Genetic Testing,” Robert Wachbroit

“The Non-Identity Problem and Genetic Harms–The Case of Wrongful Handicaps,” Dan W. Brock

“Is Gene Therapy a Form of Eugenics?” John Harris

“Genetic Enhancement,” Walter Glannon

“Genetic Interventions and the Ethics of Enhancement of Human Beings,” Julian Savulescu

“Germ-Line Gene Therapy,” LeRoy Walters and Julie Gage Palmer

“What Does ‘Respect for Embryos’ Mean in the Context of Stem Cell Research?” Bonnie Steinbock

Declaration on the Production and the Scientific and Therapeutic Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Pontifical Academy for Life

Chapter 10. Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide

Deciding Life and Death

Legal Brief: Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide: Major Developments

In Depth: Assisted Suicide: What Do Doctors Think?

Autonomy, Mercy, and Harm

In Depth: Oregon’s Death With Dignity Act

* In Depth: End-Of-Life Decisions in the Netherlands

Applying Major Theories

In Depth: Physician-Assisted Suicide and Public Opinion

Classic Case File: Nancy Cruzan

Key Terms


Cases for Evaluation

Further Reading



“Death and Dignity: A Case of Individualized Decision Making,” Timothy E. Quill

“Voluntary Active Euthanasia,” Dan W. Brock

“When Self-Determination Runs Amok,” Daniel Callahan

“Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Tragic View,” John D. Arras

“Active and Passive Euthanasia,” James Rachels

“Dying at the Right Time: Reflections on (Un)Assisted Suicide,” John Hardwig

“The Philosophers’ Brief,” Ronald Dworkin, Thomas Nagel, Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Thomas Scanlon, and Judith Jarvis Thomson

* “Legalizing Assisted Dying Is Dangerous for Disabled People,” Liz Carr

* “For Now Have I My Death”: The ‘Duty to Die’ Versus the Duty to Help the Issue Stay Alive,” Felicia Ackerman

Vacco v. Quill, United States Supreme Court


Chapter 11. Dividing up Health Care Resources

Health Care in Trouble

In Depth: Unequal Health Care for Minorities

Fact File: U.S. Health Care

Theories of Justice

* In Depth: Comparing Health Care Systems: United States, Canada, and Germany

* Fact File: Poll: The Public’s Views on the ACA (“Obamacare”)

A Right to Health Care

In Depth: Public Health and Bioethics

The Ethics of Rationing

Classic Case File: Christine deMeurers

Key Terms


Cases for Evaluation

Further Reading



“Is There a Right to Health Care and, if So, What Does It Encompass?” Norman Daniels

“The Right to a Decent Minimum of Health Care,” Allen E. Buchanan

“Rights to Health Care, Social Justice, and Fairness in Health Care Allocations: Frustrations in the Face of Finitude,” H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.

* “Mirror, Mirror 2017: International Comparison Reflects Flaws and Opportunities for Better U.S. Health Care,” Eric C. Schneider, Dana O. Sarnak, David Squires, et al.

“Public Health Ethics: Mapping the Terrain,” James F. Childress et al.

“Human Rights Approach to Public Health Policy,” D. Tarantola and S. Gruskin




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